'''Antonín Leopold Dvo\u0159ák''' ( or ; ; September 8, 1841May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer. Following the nationalist example of Bed\u0159ich Smetana, Dvo\u0159ák frequently employed aspects, specifically rhythms, of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia (then parts of the Austrian Empire and now constituting the Czech Republic). Dvo\u0159ák's own style has been described as 'the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them'.Clapham (1995), 765
Dvo\u0159ák displayed his musical gifts at an early age, being an apt student of violin playing from age 6. The first public performances of his works were in Prague in 1872 and, with special success, in 1873, when he was age 31. Seeking recognition beyond the Prague area, he first submitted a score of his ''First Symphony'' to a prize competition in Germany, but he did not win, and the manuscript, not returned, was lost until rediscovered many years later. Then in 1874 he first made a submission for the Austrian State Prize for Composition, including scores of two further symphonies and other works. Brahms, unbeknownst to Dvo\u0159ák, was the leading member of the jury and was highly impressed. The prize was awarded to Dvo\u0159ák for 1874Brahms joined the jury, and the 1874 prize was awarded, only in early 1875 and again in 1876 and in 1877, when Brahms and the prominent critic Eduard Hanslick, also a member of the jury, made themselves known to him. Brahms recommended Dvo\u0159ák to his publisher, Simrock, who soon afterward commissioned what became the ''Slavonic Dances'', Op. 46. These were highly praised by the Berlin music critic Louis Ehlert in 1878, the sheet music (of the original piano 4-hands version) had excellent sales, and Dvo\u0159ák's international reputation at last was launched.
Dvo\u0159ák's first piece of a religious nature, his setting of ''Stabat Mater'', was premiered in Prague in 1880. It was very successfully performed in London in 1883, leading to many other performances in the United Kingdom and United States.Clapham 1979, Norton, p. 60 In his career, Dvo\u0159ák made nine invited visits to England, often conducting performances of his own works. His ''Seventh Symphony'' was written for London. After a brief conducting stint in Russia in 1890, Dvo\u0159ák was appointed as a professor at the Prague Conservatory in 1891. In 1890-1891, he wrote his ''Dumky Trio'', one of his most successful chamber music pieces. In 1892, Dvo\u0159ák moved to the United States and became the director of the National Conservatory of Music of America in New York City. While in the United States, Dvo\u0159ák wrote his two most successful orchestral works. The Symphony ''From the New World'' spread his reputation worldwide.Clapham, 1979, Norton Ed., pp. 132-133 His Cello Concerto is the most highly regarded of all cello concerti. Also, he wrote his ''American String Quartet'', his most appreciated piece of chamber music. But shortfalls in payment of his salary, along with increasing recognition in Europe and an onset of homesickness, led him to leave the United States in 1895 and return to Bohemia.
Dvo\u0159ák's ten operas all have librettos in Czech and were intended to convey Czech national spirit, as were some of his choral works. By far the most successful of the operas is ''Rusalka''. Among his smaller works, the seventh ''Humoresque'' and the song "Songs My Mother Taught Me" are also widely performed and recorded. He has been described as "arguably the most versatile...composer of his time".Taruskin (2010), 754