James Brown
James Brown

James Joseph Brown (Might 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, dancer, musician, file producer, and bandleader. The central progenitor of funk music and a significant determine of twentieth century music, he’s typically referred to by the honorific nicknames “Godfather of Soul”, “Mr. Dynamite”, and “Soul Brother No. 1”.[1] In a profession that lasted greater than 50 years, he influenced the event of a number of music genres.[2] Brown was one of many first 10 inductees into the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame at its inaugural induction in New York on January 23, 1986.

Brown started his profession as a gospel singer in Toccoa, Georgia.[3] He first got here to nationwide public consideration within the mid-Nineteen Fifties because the lead singer of the Well-known Flames, a rhythm and blues vocal group based by Bobby Byrd.[4][5] With the hit ballads “Please, Please, Please” and “Strive Me”, Brown constructed a popularity as a dynamic stay performer with the Well-known Flames and his backing band, typically generally known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra. His success peaked within the Nineteen Sixties with the stay album Dwell on the Apollo and hit singles reminiscent of “Papa’s Bought a Model New Bag”, “I Bought You (I Really feel Good)” and “It is a Man’s Man’s Man’s World”.

Through the late Nineteen Sixties, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based kinds and types to a profoundly “Africanized” method to music-making, emphasizing stripped-down interlocking rhythms that influenced the event of funk music.[6] By the early Nineteen Seventies, Brown had absolutely established the funk sound after the formation of the J.B.s with information reminiscent of “Get Up (I Really feel Like Being a) Intercourse Machine” and “The Payback”. He additionally grew to become famous for songs of social commentary, together with the 1968 hit “Say It Loud – I am Black and I am Proud”. Brown continued to carry out and file till his demise from pneumonia in 2006.

Brown recorded 17 singles that reached No. 1 on the Billboard R&B charts.[7][8] He additionally holds the file for essentially the most singles listed on the Billboard Sizzling 100 chart that didn’t attain No. 1.[9][10] Brown was inducted into the primary class of the Rhythm & Blues Music Corridor of Fame in 2013 as an artist after which in 2017 as a songwriter. He additionally obtained honors from a number of different establishments, together with inductions into the Black Music & Leisure Stroll of Fame,[11] and the Songwriters Corridor of Fame.[12] In Joel Whitburn’s evaluation of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Brown is ranked No. 1 in The High 500 Artists.[13] He’s ranked seventh on Rolling Stone‘s checklist of the 100 Biggest Artists of All Time.[14]


Brown was born on Might 3, 1933, in Barnwell, South Carolina, to 16-year-old Susie (née Behling; 1916–2004) and 21-year-old Joseph Gardner Brown (1912–1993) in a small wood shack.[15] Brown’s title was imagined to have been Joseph James Brown, however his first and center names had been mistakenly reversed on his start certificates.[16] In his autobiography, Brown said that he had Chinese language and Native American ancestry and that his father was of blended African-American and Native American descent, whereas his mom was of blended African-American and Asian descent.[17][18][19]

The Brown household lived in excessive poverty in Elko, South Carolina, which was an impoverished city on the time.[9] They later moved to Augusta, Georgia, when James was 4 or 5.[20] His household first settled at considered one of his aunts’ brothels. They later moved right into a home shared with one other aunt.[20] Brown’s mom ultimately left the household after a contentious and abusive marriage and moved to New York.[21] Brown spent lengthy stretches of time on his personal, hanging out within the streets and hustling to get by. He managed to remain at school till the sixth grade.[citation needed]

He started singing in expertise reveals as a younger baby, first showing at Augusta’s Lenox Theater in 1944, profitable the present after singing the ballad “So Lengthy”.[22] Whereas in Augusta, Brown carried out buck dances for change to entertain troops from Camp Gordon in the beginning of World Conflict II as their convoys traveled over a canal bridge close to his aunt’s residence.[22] He realized to play the piano, guitar, and harmonica throughout this era. He grew to become impressed to turn into an entertainer after listening to “Caldonia” by Louis Jordan and his Tympany 5.[23] In his teen years, Brown briefly had a profession as a boxer.[24]

On the age of 16, he was convicted of theft and despatched to a juvenile detention heart in Toccoa.[25] There, he fashioned a gospel quartet with 4 fellow cellmates, together with Johnny Terry. Brown met singer Bobby Byrd when the 2 performed in opposition to one another in a baseball sport exterior the detention heart. Byrd additionally found that Brown may sing after listening to of “a man known as Music Field”, which was Brown’s musical nickname on the jail. Byrd has since claimed he and his household helped to safe an early launch, which led to Brown promising the courtroom he would “sing for the Lord”. Brown was launched on a piece sponsorship with Toccoa enterprise proprietor S.C. Lawson. Lawson was impressed with Brown’s work ethic and secured his launch with a promise to maintain him employed for 2 years. Brown was paroled on June 14, 1952.[26] Brown went on to work with each of Lawson’s sons, and would come again to go to the household every now and then all through his profession. Shortly after being paroled he joined the gospel group the Ever-Prepared Gospel Singers, that includes Byrd’s sister Sarah.[27]

Music profession

1953–1961: The Well-known Flames

Brown ultimately joined Bobby Byrd’s group in 1954. The group had developed from the Gospel Starlighters, an a cappella gospel group, to an R&B group with the title the Avons.[28] He apparently joined the band after considered one of its members, Troy Collins, died in a automobile crash.[29] Together with Brown and Byrd, the group consisted of Sylvester Keels, Doyle Oglesby, Fred Pulliam, Nash Knox and Nafloyd Scott. Influenced by R&B teams reminiscent of Hank Ballard and the Midnighters, the Orioles and Billy Ward and his Dominoes, the group modified its title, first to the Toccoa Band after which to the Flames.[30][29] Nafloyd’s brother Baroy later joined the group on bass guitar, and Brown, Byrd and Keels switched lead positions and devices, typically taking part in drums and piano. Johnny Terry later joined, by which era Pulliam and Oglesby had lengthy left.[31] considered one of his 10 kids commited suicide.

Berry Trimier grew to become the group’s first supervisor, reserving them at events close to school campuses in Georgia and South Carolina.[32] The group had already gained a popularity as an excellent stay act after they renamed themselves the Well-known Flames.[33] In 1955, the group had contacted Little Richard whereas performing in Macon.[34] Richard satisfied the group to get in touch together with his supervisor on the time, Clint Brantley, at his nightclub.[35] Brantley agreed to handle them after seeing the group audition.[36] He then despatched them to an area radio station to file a demo session, the place they carried out their very own composition “Please, Please, Please”, which was impressed when Little Richard wrote the phrases of the title on a serviette and Brown was decided to make a track out of it.[36][37][38] The Well-known Flames ultimately signed with King Information’ Federal subsidiary in Cincinnati, Ohio, and issued a re-recorded model of “Please, Please, Please” in March 1956. The track grew to become the group’s first R&B hit, promoting over one million copies.[39] None of their follow-ups gained related success. By 1957, Brown had changed Clint Brantley as supervisor and employed Ben Bart, chief of Common Sights Company. That 12 months the unique Flames broke up, after Bart modified the title of the group to “James Brown and The Well-known Flames”.[40]

In October 1958, Brown launched the ballad “Strive Me”, which hit primary on the R&B chart at first of 1959, turning into the primary of seventeen chart-topping R&B hits.[41] Shortly afterwards, he recruited his first band, led by J. C. Davis, and reunited with Bobby Byrd who joined a revived Well-known Flames lineup that included Eugene “Child” Lloyd Stallworth and Bobby Bennett, with Johnny Terry typically coming in because the “fifth Flame”. Brown, the Flames, and his complete band debuted on the Apollo Theater on April 24, 1959, opening for Brown’s idol, Little Willie John.[29][42] Federal Information issued two albums credited to Brown and the Well-known Flames (each contained beforehand launched singles). By 1960, Brown started multi-tasking within the recording studio involving himself, his singing group, the Well-known Flames, and his band, a separate entity from The Flames, typically named the James Brown Orchestra or the James Brown Band. That 12 months the band launched the highest ten R&B hit “(Do the) Mashed Potatoes” on Dade Information, owned by Henry Stone, billed beneath the pseudonym “Nat Kendrick & the Swans” as a consequence of label points.[43] On account of its success, King president Syd Nathan shifted Brown’s contract from Federal to the mum or dad label, King, which in response to Brown in his autobiography meant “you bought extra help from the corporate”. Whereas with King, Brown, beneath the Well-known Flames lineup, launched the hit-filled album Assume! and the next 12 months launched two albums with the James Brown Band incomes second billing. With the Well-known Flames, Brown sang lead on a number of extra hits, together with”Bewildered”, “I will Go Loopy” and “Assume”, songs that hinted at his rising fashion.[29]

1962–1966: Mr. Dynamite

In 1962, Brown and his band scored a success with their cowl of the instrumental “Evening Prepare”, turning into a high 5 R&B single. That very same 12 months, the ballads “Misplaced Somebody” and “Child You are Proper”, the latter a Joe Tex composition, added to his repertoire and elevated his popularity with R&B audiences. On October 24, 1962, Brown financed a stay recording of a efficiency on the Apollo and satisfied Syd Nathan to launch the album, regardless of Nathan’s perception that nobody would purchase a stay album as a consequence of the truth that Brown’s singles had already been purchased and that stay albums had been often dangerous sellers.

Brown (center) and The Well-known Flames (far left to proper, Bobby Bennett, Lloyd Stallworth, and Bobby Byrd), performing stay on the Apollo Theater in New York Metropolis, 1964

Dwell on the Apollo was launched the next June and have become an instantaneous hit, ultimately reaching quantity two on the High LPs chart and promoting over one million copies, staying on the charts for 14 months.[44] In 1963, Brown scored his first high 20 pop hit together with his rendition of the usual “Prisoner of Love”. He additionally launched his first label, Strive Me Information, which included recordings by the likes of Tammy Montgomery (later to be well-known as Tammi Terrell), Johnny & Invoice (Well-known Flames associates Johnny Terry and Invoice Hollings) and the Poets, which was one other title used for Brown’s backing band.[29] Throughout this time Brown started an ill-fated two-year relationship with 17-year-old Tammi Terrell when she sang in his revue. Terrell ended their private {and professional} relationship due to his abusive conduct.[45]

In 1964, in search of greater industrial success, Brown and Bobby Byrd fashioned the manufacturing firm, Truthful Deal, linking the operation to the Mercury imprint, Smash Information.[29][46] King Information, nonetheless, fought in opposition to this and was granted an injunction stopping Brown from releasing any recordings for the label. Previous to the injunction, Brown had launched three vocal singles, together with the blues-oriented hit “Out of Sight”, which additional indicated the path his music was going to take.[47] Touring all year long, Brown and the Well-known Flames grabbed extra nationwide consideration after giving an explosive show-stopping efficiency on the stay live performance movie The T.A.M.I. Present. The Flames’ dynamic gospel-tinged vocals, polished choreography and timing in addition to Brown’s energetic dance strikes and high-octane singing upstaged the proposed closing act, The Rolling Stones.

Having signed a brand new take care of King, Brown launched his track “Papa’s Bought a Model New Bag” in 1965, which grew to become his first high ten pop hit and received him his first Grammy Award.[48] Brown additionally signed a manufacturing take care of Loma Information.[49] Later in 1965, he issued “I Bought You”, which grew to become his second single in a row to succeed in number-one on the R&B chart and high ten on the pop chart. Brown adopted that up with the ballad “It is a Man’s Man’s Man’s World”, a 3rd High 10 Pop hit (No. 1 R&B) which confirmed his stance as a top-ranking performer, particularly with R&B audiences from that time on.[48]

1967–1970: Soul Brother No. 1

Brown performing in 1969

By 1967, Brown’s rising sound had begun to be outlined as funk music. That 12 months he launched what some critics cited as the primary true funk track, “Chilly Sweat”, which hit number-one on the R&B chart (High 10 Pop) and have become considered one of his first recordings to comprise a drum break and likewise the primary that featured a concord that was decreased to a single chord.[50][51] The instrumental preparations on tracks reminiscent of “Give It Up or Turnit a Unfastened” and “Licking Stick-Licking Stick” (each recorded in 1968) and “Funky Drummer” (recorded in 1969) featured a extra developed model of Brown’s mid-Nineteen Sixties fashion, with the horn part, guitars, bass and drums meshed collectively in intricate rhythmic patterns based mostly on a number of interlocking riffs.

Adjustments in Brown’s fashion that began with “Chilly Sweat” additionally established the musical basis for Brown’s later hits, reminiscent of “I Bought the Feelin'” (1968) and “Mom Popcorn” (1969). By this time Brown’s vocals continuously took the type of a type of rhythmic declamation, not fairly sung however not fairly spoken, that solely intermittently featured traces of pitch or melody. This is able to turn into a significant affect on the methods of rapping, which might come to maturity together with hip hop music within the coming a long time. Brown’s fashion of funk within the late Nineteen Sixties was based mostly on interlocking syncopated elements: strutting bass strains, syncopated drum patterns, and iconic percussive guitar riffs.[52] The primary guitar ostinatos for “Ain’t It Funky” and “Give It Up or Turnit a Unfastened” (each 1969), are examples of Brown’s refinement of New Orleans funk; irresistibly danceable riffs, stripped right down to their rhythmic essence. On each recordings the tonal construction is naked bones. The sample of attack-points is the emphasis, not the sample of pitches, as if the guitar had been an African drum, or idiophone. Alexander Stewart states that this common really feel was handed alongside from “New Orleans—by way of James Brown’s music, to the favored music of the Nineteen Seventies”.[53] Those self same tracks had been later resurrected by numerous hip-hop musicians from the Nineteen Seventies onward. Consequently, James Brown stays to today the world’s most sampled recording artist, however, two tracks that he wrote, are additionally synonymous with fashionable dance, particularly with home music, jungle music, and drum and bass music, (which had been sped up exponentially, within the latter two genres).

“Carry it Up” has an Afro-Cuban guajeo-like construction. All three of those guitar riffs are based mostly on an onbeat/offbeat construction. Stewart says that it “is totally different from a time line (reminiscent of clave and tresillo) in that it’s not an actual sample, however extra of a unfastened organizing precept.”[54]

It was round this time because the musician’s recognition elevated that he acquired the nickname “Soul Brother No. 1”, after failing to win the title “King of Soul” from Solomon Burke throughout a Chicago gig two years prior.[55] Brown’s recordings throughout this era influenced musicians throughout the business, most notably teams reminiscent of Sly and the Household Stone, Funkadelic, Charles Wright & the Watts 103rd Avenue Rhythm Band, Booker T. & the M.G.s in addition to vocalists reminiscent of Edwin Starr, David Ruffin and Dennis Edwards from The Temptations, and Michael Jackson, who, all through his profession, cited Brown as his final idol.[56]

Brown’s band throughout this era employed musicians and arrangers who had come up by way of the jazz custom. He was famous for his means as a bandleader and songwriter to mix the simplicity and drive of R&B with the rhythmic complexity and precision of jazz. Trumpeter Lewis Hamlin and saxophonist/keyboardist Alfred “Pee Wee” Ellis (the successor to earlier bandleader Nat Jones) led the band. Guitarist Jimmy Nolen supplied percussive, deceptively easy riffs for every track, and Maceo Parker’s distinguished saxophone solos supplied a focus for a lot of performances. Different members of Brown’s band included stalwart Well-known Flames singer and sideman Bobby Byrd, trombonist Fred Wesley, drummers John “Jabo” Starks, Clyde Stubblefield and Melvin Parker, saxophonist St. Clair Pinckney, guitarist Alphonso “Nation” Kellum and bassist Bernard Odum.

Along with a torrent of singles and studio albums, Brown’s output throughout this era included two extra profitable stay albums, Dwell on the Backyard (1967) and Dwell on the Apollo, Quantity II (1968), and a 1968 tv particular, James Brown: Man to Man. His music empire expanded alongside together with his affect on the music scene. As Brown’s music empire grew, his want for monetary and inventive independence grew as effectively. Brown purchased radio stations throughout the late Nineteen Sixties, together with WRDW in his native Augusta, the place he shined footwear as a boy.[48] In November 1967, James Brown bought radio station WGYW in Knoxville, Tennessee, for a reported $75,000, in response to the January 20, 1968 File World journal. The decision letters had been modified to WJBE reflecting his initials. WJBE started on January 15, 1968, and broadcast a Rhythm & Blues format. The station slogan was “WJBE 1430 Uncooked Soul”. Brown additionally purchased WEBB in Baltimore in 1970.

Brown branched out to make a number of recordings with musicians exterior his personal band. In an try and attraction to the older, extra prosperous, and predominantly white grownup up to date viewers, Brown recorded Gettin’ Down To It (1969) and Soul on High (1970)—two albums consisting largely of romantic ballads, jazz requirements, and homologous reinterpretations of his earlier hits—with the Dee Felice Trio and the Louie Bellson Orchestra. In 1968, he recorded numerous funk-oriented tracks with The Dapps, a white Cincinnati band, together with the hit “I Cannot Stand Myself”. He additionally launched three albums of Christmas music together with his personal band.

1970–1975: Godfather of Soul

In March 1970, most of Brown’s mid-to-late Nineteen Sixties street band walked out on him as a consequence of cash disputes, a growth augured by the prior disbandment of The Well-known Flames singing group for a similar purpose in 1968. Brown and erstwhile Well-known Flames singer Bobby Byrd (who selected to stay within the band throughout this tumultuous interval) subsequently recruited a number of members of the Cincinnati-based The Pacemakers, which included Bootsy Collins and his brother Phelps “Catfish” Collins; augmented by the remaining members of the Nineteen Sixties street band (together with Fred Wesley, who rejoined Brown’s outfit in December 1970) and different newer musicians, they’d kind the nucleus of The J.B.’s, Brown’s new backing ensemble. Shortly following their first efficiency collectively, the band entered the studio to file the Brown-Byrd composition, “Get Up (I Really feel Like Being a) Intercourse Machine”; the track and different contemporaneous singles would additional cement Brown’s affect within the nascent style of funk music. This iteration of the J.B.’s dissolved after a March 1971 European tour (documented on the 1991 archival launch Love Energy Peace) as a consequence of further cash disputes and Bootsy Collins’ use of LSD; the Collins brothers would quickly turn into integral members of Parliament-Funkadelic, whereas a brand new lineup of the J.B.’s coalesced round Wesley, St. Clair Pinckney and drummer John Starks.

Brown with a disc jockey after a live performance in Tampa in 1972

In 1971, Brown started recording for Polydor Information which additionally took over distribution of Brown’s King Information catalog.[citation needed] A lot of his sidemen and supporting gamers, together with Fred Wesley & the J.B.’s, Bobby Byrd, Lyn Collins, Vicki Anderson and former rival Hank Ballard, launched information on the Folks label, an imprint based by Brown that was bought by Polydor as a part of Brown’s new contract.[citation needed] The recordings on the Folks label, nearly all of which had been produced by Brown himself, exemplified the mature flowering of his “home fashion”.[citation needed] A number of tracks thought by critics to be excessively sexual had been launched at the moment.[citation needed] He would later soften his vocal method. Songs reminiscent of “I Know You Bought Soul” by Bobby Byrd, “Assume” by Lyn Collins and “Doing It to Loss of life” by Fred Wesley & the J.B.’s are thought of as a lot part of Brown’s recorded legacy because the recordings launched beneath his personal title.[citation needed] That 12 months, he additionally started touring African nations and was obtained effectively by audiences there.[citation needed] Through the 1972 presidential election, James Brown brazenly proclaimed his help of Richard Nixon for reelection to the presidency over Democratic candidate George McGovern.[57] The choice led to a boycott of his performances and, in response to Brown, value him a giant portion of his black viewers.[58] Consequently, Brown’s file gross sales and live shows in the USA reached a lull in 1973 as he didn’t land a number-one R&B single that 12 months. Brown relied extra on touring exterior the USA the place he continued to carry out for sold-out crowds in cities reminiscent of London, Paris and Lausanne.[citation needed] That 12 months he additionally confronted issues with the IRS for failure to pay again taxes, charging he hadn’t paid upwards of $4.5 million; 5 years earlier, the IRS had claimed he owed almost $2 million.[59]

Brown performing in 1973

In 1973, Brown supplied the rating for the blaxploitation movie Black Caesar. He additionally recorded one other soundtrack for the movie, Slaughter’s Massive Rip-Off.[citation needed] Following the discharge of those soundtracks, Brown acquired a self-styled nickname, “The Godfather of Soul”, which stays his hottest nickname.[citation needed] In 1974 he returned to the No. 1 spot on the R&B charts with “The Payback”, with the mum or dad album reaching the identical spot on the album charts; he would attain No. 1 two extra instances in 1974, with “My Thang” and “Papa Do not Take No Mess”.[citation needed] Later that 12 months, he returned to Africa and carried out in Kinshasa as a part of the buildup to The Rumble within the Jungle struggle between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman.[citation needed] Admirers of Brown’s music, together with Miles Davis and different jazz musicians, started to quote him as a significant affect on their very own types.[citation needed] Nonetheless, Brown, like others who had been influenced by his music, additionally “borrowed” from different musicians. His 1976 single, “Sizzling (I Want To Be Beloved, Beloved, Beloved, Beloved)” (R&B No. 31), interpolated the principle riff from “Fame” by David Bowie whereas omitting any attribution to the latter track’s composers (together with Bowie, John Lennon and guitarist Carlos Alomar), not the opposite approach round as was typically believed.[citation needed]

“Papa Do not Take No Mess” would show to be his closing single to succeed in the No. 1 spot on the R&B charts and his closing High 40 pop single of the Nineteen Seventies, although he continued to sometimes have High 10 R&B recordings.[citation needed] Amongst his high ten R&B hits throughout this latter interval included “Funky President” (R&B No. 4) and “Get Up Offa That Factor” (R&B No. 4), the latter track launched in 1976 and geared toward musical rivals reminiscent of Barry White, The Ohio Gamers and Ok.C. and the Sunshine Band.[citation needed] Brown credited his then-wife and two of their kids as writers of the track to keep away from concurrent tax issues with the IRS.[citation needed] Beginning in October 1975, Brown produced, directed, and hosted Future Shock, an Atlanta-based tv selection present that ran for 3 years.[citation needed]

1975–1991: Decline and resurgence

James Brown (1977)

Though his information had been mainstays of the vanguard New York underground disco scene (exemplified by DJs reminiscent of David Mancuso and Francis Grasso) from 1969 onwards, Brown didn’t consciously yield to the development till 1975’s Intercourse Machine At this time. By 1977, he was now not a dominant pressure in R&B. After “Get Up Offa That Factor”, 13 of Brown’s late Nineteen Seventies recordings for Polydor failed to succeed in the High 10 of the R&B chart, with solely “Bodyheat” in 1976 and the disco-oriented “It is Too Funky in Right here” in 1979 reaching the R&B High 15 and the ballad “Kiss in ’77” reaching the High 20. After 1976’s “Bodyheat”, he additionally failed to seem on the Billboard Sizzling 100. Consequently, Brown’s live performance attendance started dropping and his reported disputes with the IRS precipitated his enterprise empire to break down. As well as, Brown’s former bandmates, together with Fred Wesley, Maceo Parker and the Collins brothers, had discovered greater success as members of George Clinton’s Parliament-Funkadelic collective. The emergence of disco additionally stopped Brown’s success on the R&B charts as a result of its slicker, extra industrial fashion had outmoded his extra uncooked funk productions.

By the discharge of 1979’s The Unique Disco Man, Brown was not offering a lot manufacturing or writing, leaving most of it to producer Brad Shapiro, ensuing within the track “It is Too Funky in Right here” turning into Brown’s most profitable single on this interval. After two extra albums didn’t chart, Brown left Polydor in 1981. It was round this time that Brown modified the title of his band from the J.B.’s to the Soul Generals (or Soul G’s). The band retained that title till his demise. Regardless of Brown’s declining file gross sales, promoters Gary LoConti and Jim Rissmiller helped Brown promote out a string of residency reveals on the Nation Membership in Reseda. Brown’s compromised industrial standing prevented him from charging a big stay charge to the promoters for these reveals. Nonetheless, the nice success of those reveals marked a turning level for Brown’s profession, and shortly he was again on high in Hollywood. Motion pictures adopted, beginning with appearances within the function movies The Blues Brothers, Physician Detroit and Rocky IV, in addition to guest-starring within the Miami Vice episode “Lacking Hours” (1987). In 1984, he teamed with rap musician Afrika Bambaataa on the track “Unity”. A 12 months later he signed with Scotti Brothers Information and issued the reasonably profitable album Gravity in 1986. It included Brown’s closing High 10 pop hit, “Dwelling in America”, marking his first High 40 entry since 1974 and his first High 10 pop entry since 1968. Produced and written by Dan Hartman, it was additionally featured prominently on the Rocky IV movie and soundtrack. Brown carried out the track within the movie at Apollo Creed’s closing struggle, shot within the Ziegfeld Room on the MGM Grand in Las Vegas, and was credited within the movie as “The Godfather of Soul”. 1986 additionally noticed the publication of his autobiography, James Brown: The Godfather of Soul, co-written with Bruce Tucker. In 1987, Brown received the Grammy for Greatest Male R&B Vocal Efficiency for “Dwelling in America”.

In 1988, Brown labored with the manufacturing staff Full Power on the brand new jack swing-influenced I am Actual. It spawned his closing two High 10 R&B hits, “I am Actual” and “Static”, which peaked at No. 2 and No. 5, respectively, on the R&B charts. In the meantime, the drum break from the second model of the unique 1969 hit “Give It Up Or Turnit A Unfastened” (the recording included on the compilation album Within the Jungle Groove) grew to become so common at hip hop dance events (particularly for breakdance) throughout the early Eighties that hip hop pioneer Kurtis Blow known as the track “the nationwide anthem of hip hop”.[60]

1991–2006: Last years

Brown performing in 1998

After his stint in jail throughout the late Eighties, Brown met Larry Fridie and Thomas Hart who produced the primary James Brown biopic, entitled James Brown: The Man, the Message, the Music, launched in 1992.[61] He returned to music with the album Love Over-Due in 1991. It included the only “(So Bored with Standing Nonetheless We Bought to) Transfer On”, which peaked at No. 48 on the R&B chart. His former file label Polydor additionally launched the four-CD field set Star Time, spanning Brown’s profession to this point. Brown’s launch from jail additionally prompted his former file labels to reissue his albums on CD, that includes further tracks and commentary by music critics and historians. That very same 12 months, Brown appeared on rapper MC Hammer’s video for “Too Legit to Give up”. Hammer had been famous, alongside Massive Daddy Kane, for bringing Brown’s distinctive stage reveals and their very own energetic dance strikes to the hip-hop technology; each listed Brown as their idol. Each musicians additionally sampled his work, with Hammer having sampled the rhythms from “Tremendous Dangerous” for his track “Right here Comes the Hammer”, from his best-selling album Please Hammer, Do not Damage ‘Em. Massive Daddy Kane sampled many instances. Earlier than the 12 months was over, Brown–who had instantly returned to work together with his band following his launch–organized a pay-per-view live performance following a present at Los Angeles’ Wiltern Theatre, that was effectively obtained.

On June 10, 1991, James Brown and a star-filled line up carried out earlier than a crowd on the Wiltern Theatre for a stay pay-per-view at-home viewers. James Brown: Dwelling in America – Dwell! was the brainchild of Indiana producer Danny Hubbard. It featured
M.C. Hammer in addition to Bell Biv Devoe, Heavy D & the Boys, En Vogue, C+C Music Manufacturing facility, Quincy Jones, Sherman Hemsley and Keenen Ivory Wayans. Ice-T, Tone Loc and Kool Moe Dee carried out paying homage to Brown. This was Brown’s first public efficiency since his parole from the South Carolina jail system in February. He had served two-and-a-half years of two concurrent six-year sentences for aggravated assault and different felonies.

Brown continued making recordings. In 1993 his album Common James was launched. It included his closing Billboard charting single, “Cannot Get Any Tougher”, which peaked at No. 76 on the US R&B chart and reached No. 59 on the UK chart. Its transient charting within the UK was most likely because of the success of a remixed model of “I Really feel Good” that includes Dakeyne. Brown additionally launched the singles “How Lengthy” and “Georgia-Lina”, which did not chart. In 1995, Brown returned to the Apollo and recorded Dwell on the Apollo 1995. It included a studio monitor titled “Respect Me”, which was launched as a single; once more it didn’t chart. Brown’s closing studio albums, I am Again and The Subsequent Step, had been launched in 1998 and 2002 respectively. I am Again featured the track “Funk on Ah Roll”, which peaked at No. 40 within the UK however didn’t chart in his native US. The Subsequent Step included Brown’s closing single, “Killing Is Out, Faculty Is In”. Each albums had been produced by Derrick Monk. Brown’s live performance success, nonetheless, remained unabated and he saved up with a grueling schedule all through the rest of his life, residing as much as his earlier nickname, “The Hardest Working Man in Present Enterprise”, regardless of his superior age. In 2003, Brown participated within the PBS American Masters tv documentary James Brown: Soul Survivor, which was directed by Jeremy Marre.

Brown carried out within the Tremendous Bowl XXXI halftime present.

Brown throughout the NBA All-Star Recreation jam session, 2001

Brown celebrated his standing as an icon by showing in quite a lot of leisure and sports activities occasions, together with an look on the WCW pay-per-view occasion, SuperBrawl X, the place he danced alongside wrestler Ernest “The Cat” Miller, who based mostly his character on Brown, throughout his in-ring skit with The Maestro. Brown then appeared in Tony Scott’s brief movie Beat the Satan in 2001. He was featured alongside Clive Owen, Gary Oldman, Danny Trejo and Marilyn Manson. Brown additionally made a cameo look within the 2002 Jackie Chan movie The Tuxedo, wherein Chan was required to complete Brown’s act after having unintentionally knocked out the singer. In 2002, Brown appeared in Undercover Brother, taking part in himself.

Brown performing in June 2005

In 2004, Brown carried out in Hyde Park, London as a help act for Purple Sizzling Chili Peppers live shows.[62] The start of 2005 noticed the publication of Brown’s second e book, I Really feel Good: A Memoir of a Lifetime of Soul, written with Marc Eliot. In February and March, he participated in recording classes for an supposed studio album with Fred Wesley, Pee Wee Ellis, and different longtime collaborators. Although he misplaced curiosity within the album, which stays unreleased, a monitor from the classes, “Intestine Bucket”, appeared on a compilation CD included with the August 2006 situation of MOJO.[63] He appeared at Edinburgh 50,000 – The Last Push, the ultimate Dwell 8 live performance on July 6, 2005, the place he carried out a duet with British pop star Will Younger on “Papa’s Bought A Model New Bag”. Within the Black Eyed Peas album “Monkey Enterprise”, Brown was featured on a monitor known as, “They Do not Need Music”. The earlier week he had carried out a duet with one other British pop star, Joss Stone, on the UK chat present Friday Evening with Jonathan Ross. In 2006, Brown continued his “Seven A long time of Funk World Tour”, his final live performance tour the place he carried out all around the world. His closing U.S. performances had been in San Francisco on August 20, 2006, as headliner on the Pageant of the Golden Gate (Foggfest) on the Nice Meadow at Fort Mason. The next day, August 21, he carried out at Humboldt State College in Arcata, CA, at a small theatre (800 seats) on campus. His final reveals had been greeted with optimistic evaluations, and considered one of his closing live performance appearances on the Irish Oxegen competition in Punchestown in 2006 was carried out for a file crowd of 80,000 folks. He performed a full live performance as a part of the BBC’s Electrical Proms on October 27, 2006, at The Roundhouse,[64] supported by The Zutons, with particular appearances from Max Beasley and The Sugababes.

Brown’s final televised look was at his induction into the UK Music Corridor of Fame in November 2006, earlier than his demise the next month. Earlier than his demise, Brown had been scheduled to carry out a duet with singer Annie Lennox on the track “Vengeance” for her new album Venus, which was launched in 2007.


Brown’s most well-known MC was Danny Ray (heart), who was with him for over 30 years.

As a vocalist, Brown carried out in a forceful shout fashion derived from gospel music. In the meantime, “his rhythmic grunts and expressive shrieks harked again farther nonetheless to ring shouts, work songs, and area cries”, in response to the Encyclopedia of African-American Tradition and Historical past (1996): “He reimported the rhythmic complexity from which rhythm and blues, beneath the twin stress of rock ‘n’ roll and pop, had progressively fallen away since its start from jazz and blues.”[65]

For a few years, Brown’s touring present was some of the extravagant productions in American common music. On the time of Brown’s demise, his band included three guitarists, two bass guitar gamers, two drummers, three horns and a percussionist.[66] The bands that he maintained throughout the late Nineteen Sixties and Nineteen Seventies had been of comparable dimension, and the bands additionally included a three-piece amplified string part that performed throughout the ballads.[67] Brown employed between 40 and 50 folks for the James Brown Revue, and members of the revue traveled with him in a bus to cities and cities all around the nation, performing upwards of 330 reveals a 12 months with nearly the entire reveals as one-nighters.[68][69]

Live performance fashion

Earlier than James Brown appeared on stage, his private MC gave him an elaborate introduction accompanied by drumrolls, because the MC labored in Brown’s varied sobriquets together with the names of lots of his hit songs. The introduction by Fat Gonder, captured on Brown’s 1963 album Dwell on the Apollo is a consultant instance:

So now girls and gents it’s “Star Time”. Are you prepared for “Star Time?” Thanks and thanks very kindly. It’s certainly an incredible pleasure to current to you at this explicit time, nationwide[ly] and worldwide[ly] generally known as “The Hardest-Working Man in Present Enterprise”, the person that sings “I will Go Loopy”…”Strive Me”…”You have Bought the Energy”…”Assume”…”If You Need Me”…”I Do not Thoughts”…”Bewildered”… the million greenback vendor, “Misplaced Somebody”… the very newest launch, “Evening Prepare”… let’s everyone “Shout and Shimmy”… “Mr. Dynamite”, the superb “Mr. Please Please” himself, the star of the present, James Brown and The Well-known Flames!![70]

Brown and MC Danny Ray throughout cape routine, BBC Electrical Proms ’06 live performance

James Brown’s performances had been well-known for his or her depth and size. His personal said objective was to “give folks greater than what they got here for — make them drained, ‘trigger that is what they got here for.'”[71] Brown’s live performance repertoire consisted largely of his personal hits and up to date songs, with a number of R&B covers blended in. Brown danced vigorously as he sang, working common dance steps such because the Mashed Potato into his routine together with dramatic leaps, splits and slides. As well as, his horn gamers and singing group (The Well-known Flames) sometimes carried out choreographed dance routines, and later incarnations of the Revue included backup dancers. Male performers within the Revue had been required to put on tuxedoes and cummerbunds lengthy after extra informal live performance put on grew to become the norm among the many youthful musical acts. Brown’s personal extravagant outfits and his elaborate processed hairdo accomplished the visible impression. A James Brown live performance sometimes included a efficiency by a featured vocalist, reminiscent of Vicki Anderson or Marva Whitney, and an instrumental function for the band, which typically served because the opening act for the present.

A trademark function of Brown’s stage reveals, often throughout the track “Please, Please, Please”, concerned Brown dropping to his knees whereas clutching the microphone stand in his fingers, prompting the present’s longtime MC, Danny Ray, to return out, drape a cape over Brown’s shoulders and escort him off the stage after he had labored himself to exhaustion throughout his efficiency. As Brown was escorted off the stage by the MC, Brown’s vocal group, the Well-known Flames (Bobby Byrd, Lloyd Stallworth, and Bobby Bennett), continued singing the background vocals “Please, please do not go-oh”.[72] Brown would then shake off the cape and stagger again to the microphone to carry out an encore. Brown’s routine was impressed by an identical one utilized by the skilled wrestler Attractive George, in addition to Little Richard.[70][73][74] In his 2005 autobiography I Really feel Good: A Memoir in a Lifetime of Soul, Brown, who was a fan of Attractive George, credited the wrestler because the inspiration for each his cape routine and live performance apparel, stating, “Seeing him on TV helped create the James Brown you see on stage”.[75] Brown performs a model of the cape routine within the movie of the T.A.M.I. Present (1964) wherein he and The Well-known Flames upstaged The Rolling Stones, and over the closing credit of the movie Blues Brothers 2000. The Police check with “James Brown on the T.A.M.I. Present” of their 1980 track “When the World Is Working Down, You Make the Better of What’s Nonetheless Round”.

Band management

Brown demanded excessive self-discipline, perfection and precision from his musicians and dancers – performers in his Revue confirmed up for rehearsals and members wore the proper “uniform” or “costume” for live performance performances.[76] Throughout an interview carried out by Terri Gross throughout the NPR section “Contemporary Air” with Maceo Parker, a former saxophonist in Brown’s band for many of the Nineteen Sixties and a part of the Nineteen Seventies and Eighties, Parker supplied his expertise with the self-discipline that Brown demanded of the band:

You gotta be on time. You gotta have your uniform. Your stuff’s received to be intact. You gotta have the bow tie. You bought to have it. You possibly can’t come up with out the bow tie. You can not come up and not using a cummerbund … [The] patent leather-based footwear we had been carrying on the time gotta be greased. You simply gotta have these items. That is what [Brown expected] … [Brown] purchased the costumes. He purchased the footwear. And if for some purpose [the band member decided] to depart the group, [Brown told the person to] please go away my uniforms . …

— Maceo Parker[77]

Brown additionally had a observe of directing, correcting and assessing fines on members of his band who broke his guidelines, reminiscent of carrying unshined footwear, dancing out of sync or exhibiting up late on stage.[78] Throughout a few of his live performance performances, Brown danced in entrance of his band together with his again to the viewers as he slid throughout the ground, flashing hand indicators and splaying his pulsating fingers to the beat of the music. Though audiences thought Brown’s dance routine was a part of his act, this observe was truly his approach of pointing to the offending member of his troupe who performed or sang the incorrect be aware or dedicated another infraction. Brown used his splayed fingers and hand indicators to alert the offending individual of the positive that individual should pay to him for breaking his guidelines.[79]

Brown’s calls for of his help acts had been, in the meantime, fairly the reverse. As Fred Wesley recalled of his time as musical director of the JBs, if Brown felt intimidated by a help act he would attempt to “undermine their performances by shortening their units with out discover, demanding that they not do sure showstopping songs, and even insisting on doing the unthinkable, taking part in drums on a few of their songs. A positive set killer.”[80]

Social activism

Schooling advocacy and humanitarianism

Brown’s principal social activism was in preserving the necessity for schooling amongst youths, influenced by his personal troubled childhood and his being pressured to drop out of the seventh grade for carrying “inadequate garments”. Because of heavy dropout charges within the Nineteen Sixties, Brown launched the pro-education track, “Do not Be a Drop-Out”. Royalties of the track had been donated to dropout-prevention charity packages. The success of this led to Brown assembly with President Lyndon B. Johnson on the White Home. Johnson cited Brown for being a optimistic position mannequin to the youth. In 1968 James Brown endorsed Hubert Humphrey[81], however later Brown gained the boldness of President Richard Nixon, to whom he discovered he needed to clarify the plight of Black People.[82]

All through the rest of his life, Brown made public speeches in colleges and continued to advocate the significance of schooling at school. Upon submitting his will in 2002, Brown suggested that many of the cash in his property go into creating the I Really feel Good, Inc. Belief to profit deprived kids and supply scholarships for his grandchildren. His closing single, “Killing Is Out, Faculty Is In”, advocated in opposition to murders of younger kids within the streets. Brown typically gave out cash and different objects to kids whereas touring to his childhood hometown of Augusta. Per week earlier than his demise, whereas wanting gravely unwell, Brown gave out toys and turkeys to youngsters at an Atlanta orphanage, one thing he had achieved a number of instances over time.

Civil rights and self-reliance

Although Brown carried out at profit rallies for civil rights organizations within the mid-Nineteen Sixties, Brown typically shied away from discussing civil rights in his songs in worry of alienating his crossover viewers. In 1968, in response to a rising urge of anti-war advocacy throughout the Vietnam Conflict, Brown recorded the track, “America Is My House”. Within the track, Brown carried out a rap, advocating patriotism and exhorting listeners to “cease pitying yoursel[ves] and stand up and struggle”. On the time of the track’s launch, Brown had been taking part in performing for troops stationed in Vietnam.

The Boston Backyard live performance

On April 5, 1968, a day after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee, Brown supplied a free citywide televised live performance on the Boston Backyard to take care of public order and calm involved Boston residents (over the objections of the police chief, who needed to name off the live performance, which he thought would incite violence).[48] The present was later launched on DVD as Dwell on the Boston Backyard: April 5, 1968. In response to the documentary The Evening James Brown Saved Boston, then-mayor Kevin White had strongly restrained the Boston police from cracking down on minor violence and protests after the assassination, whereas spiritual and group leaders labored to maintain tempers from flaring.[83] White organized to have Brown’s efficiency broadcast a number of instances on Boston’s public tv station, WGBH, thus protecting potential rioters off the streets, watching the live performance without spending a dime.[83] Angered by not being instructed of this, Brown demanded $60,000 for “gate” charges (cash he thought could be misplaced from ticket gross sales on account of the live performance being broadcast without spending a dime) after which threatened to go public in regards to the secret association when town balked at paying up afterwards, information of which might have been a political demise blow to White and spark riots of its personal.[83] White ultimately lobbied the behind-the-scenes power-brokering group generally known as “The Vault” to give you cash for Brown’s gate charge and different social packages, contributing $100,000. Brown obtained $15,000 from them through town. White additionally persuaded administration on the Backyard to surrender their share of receipts to make up the variations.[83] Following this profitable efficiency, Brown was endorsed by President Johnson to induce cities ravaged from riots following King’s assassination to not resort to violence, telling them to “cool it, there’s one other approach”.[84]

Responding to stress from black activists, together with H. Rap Brown, to take a much bigger stance on their points and from footage of black on black crime dedicated in inside cities, Brown wrote the lyrics to the track “Say It Loud – I am Black and I am Proud”, which his bandleader Alfred “Pee Wee” Ellis accompanied with a musical composition. Launched late that summer time, the track’s lyrics helped to make it an anthem for the civil rights motion. Brown solely carried out the track sporadically following its preliminary launch and later said he had regrets about recording it, saying in 1984, “Now ‘Say It Loud – I am Black and I am Proud’ has achieved extra for the black race than some other file, but when I had my selection, I would not have achieved it, as a result of I do not like defining anybody by race. To show race is to show separatism.”[85] In his autobiography he said:

The track is out of date now … However it was vital to show delight then, and I believe the track did plenty of good for lots of people … Folks known as “Black and Proud” militant and indignant – possibly due to the road about dying in your toes as a substitute of residing in your knees. However actually, if you happen to hearken to it, it seems like a kids’s track. That is why I had kids in it, so kids who heard it may develop up feeling delight … The track value me plenty of my crossover viewers. The racial make-up at my live shows was largely black after that. I do not remorse it, although, even when it was misunderstood.[86]

In 1969, Brown recorded two extra songs of social commentary, “World” and “I Do not Need No one to Give Me Nothing”, the latter track pleading for equal alternative and self-reliance moderately than entitlement. In 1970, in response to some black leaders for not being outspoken sufficient, he recorded “Get Up, Get into It, Get Concerned” and “Talkin’ Loud and Sayin’ Nothing”. In 1971, he started touring Africa, together with Zambia and Nigeria. He was made “freeman of town” in Lagos, Nigeria, by Oba Adeyinka Oyekan, for his “affect on black folks all around the world”.[87] Together with his firm, James Brown Enterprises, Brown helped to supply jobs for blacks in enterprise within the communities.[88] Because the Nineteen Seventies continued, Brown continued to file songs of social commentary, most prominently 1972’s “King Heroin” and the two-part ballad “Public Enemy”, which handled drug dependancy.

Political opinions

Through the 1968 presidential marketing campaign, Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies. Brown was labeled an “Uncle Tom” for supporting Humphrey and likewise for releasing the pro-American funk track, “America Is My House”, wherein Brown had lambasted protesters of the Vietnam Conflict in addition to the politics of pro-black activists. Brown started supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to carry out at Nixon’s inaugural ball in January 1969.[89] Brown’s endorsement of Nixon throughout the 1972 presidential election negatively impacted his profession throughout that interval with a number of nationwide Black organizations boycotting his information and protesting at his live performance reveals;[90] a November 1972 present in Cincinnati was picketed with indicators saying, “James Brown: Nixon’s Clown”. Brown initially was invited to carry out at a Youth Live performance following Nixon’s inauguration in January 1973 however bailed out because of the backlash he suffered from supporting Nixon. Brown joined fellow black entertainer Sammy Davis Jr., who confronted related backlash, to again out of the live performance. Brown blamed it on “fatigue”. Brown later reversed his help of Nixon and composed the track, “You Can Have Watergate (Simply Gimme Some Bucks And I will Be Straight)” in consequence. After Nixon resigned from workplace, Brown composed the 1974 hit, “Funky President (Folks It is Dangerous)”, proper after Gerald Ford took Nixon’s place. Brown later supported Democratic President Jimmy Carter, attending considered one of Carter’s inaugural balls in 1977.[91] Brown additionally brazenly supported President Ronald Reagan’s reelection in 1984.[92]

Brown said he was neither Democratic nor Republican regardless of his help of Republican presidents reminiscent of Nixon and Reagan in addition to Democratic presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson and Carter.[93] In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the journal requested him to call a hero within the twentieth century; Brown talked about John F. Kennedy and then-96-year-old U.S. Senator, and former Dixiecrat, Strom Thurmond, stating “when the younger whippersnappers get out of line, whether or not Democratic or Republican, an outdated man can stroll up and say ‘Wait a minute, son, it goes this manner.’ And that is nice for our nation. He is like a grandfather to me.”[94] In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a Washington D.C. fundraiser for the Nationwide Republican Senatorial Committee.[95] Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his good friend Ray Charles, Brown mentioned to CNN, “I am type of in an uproar. I really like the nation and I received – you already know I have been round a very long time, by way of many presidents and the whole lot. So after dropping Mr. Reagan, who I knew very effectively, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I labored with and lived with like, all our life, we had a present collectively in Oakland many, a few years in the past and it is such as you discovered the placard.”[96] Regardless of his contrarian political beliefs, Brown mentored black activist Rev. Al Sharpton throughout the Nineteen Seventies.[97]

Private life

On the finish of his life, James Brown lived in Beech Island, South Carolina, instantly throughout the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia. Brown had diabetes that went undiagnosed for years, in response to his longtime supervisor Charles Bobbit.[98] In 2004, Brown was efficiently handled for prostate most cancers.[99] No matter his well being, Brown maintained his popularity because the “hardest working man in present enterprise” by maintaining together with his grueling efficiency schedule.

In 1962, Tammi Terrell joined the James Brown Revue. Brown grew to become sexually concerned with Terrell though she was solely 17 in a relationship that continued till she escaped his abuse.[100] Bobby Bennett, former member of the Well-known Flames, instructed Rolling Stone in regards to the abuse he witnessed: “He beat Tammi Terrell horrible”, mentioned Bennett. “She was bleeding, shedding blood.” Terrell, who died in 1970, was Brown’s girlfriend earlier than she grew to become well-known as Marvin Gaye’s singing associate within the mid-’60s. “Tammi left him as a result of she did not need her butt whipped”, mentioned Bennett, who additionally claimed he noticed Brown kick one pregnant girlfriend down a flight of stairs.[101]

Marriages and kids

Brown was married 4 instances. His first marriage was to Velma Warren in 1953, they usually had one son collectively.[102] Over a decade later, the couple had separated and the ultimate divorce decree was issued in 1969. They maintained a detailed friendship that lasted till Brown’s demise. Brown’s second marriage was to Deidre “Deedee” Jenkins, on October 22, 1970. That they had two daughters collectively. The couple had been separated by 1979, after what his daughter describes as years of home abuse,[103] and the ultimate divorce decree was issued on January 10, 1981.[104] His third marriage was to Adrienne Lois Rodriguez (March 9, 1950 – January 6, 1996), in 1984. It was a contentious marriage that made headlines as a consequence of home abuse complaints.[105][106] Rodriguez filed for divorce in 1988, “citing years of cruelty therapy”, however they reconciled.[107] Lower than a 12 months after Rodriguez died in 1996, Brown employed Tomi Rae Hynie to be a background singer for his band and he or she later grew to become his fourth spouse.[108]

On December 23, 2002, Brown and Hynie held a marriage ceremony that was officiated by the Rev. Larry Flyer. Following Brown’s demise, controversy surrounded the circumstances of the wedding, with Brown’s legal professional, Albert “Buddy” Dallas, reporting that the wedding was not legitimate; Hynie was nonetheless married to Javed Ahmed, a person from Bangladesh. Hynie claimed Ahmed married her to acquire residency by way of a Inexperienced Card and that the wedding was annulled however the annulment didn’t happen till April 2004.[109][110] In an try and show her marriage to Brown was legitimate, Hynie produced a 2001 marriage certificates as proof of her marriage to Brown, however she didn’t present King with courtroom information pointing to an annulment of her marriage to him or to Ahmed.[111] In response to Dallas, Brown was indignant and damage that Hynie had hid her prior marriage from him and Brown moved to file for annulment from Hynie.[112] Dallas added that although Hynie’s marriage to Ahmed was annulled after she married Brown, the Brown–Hynie marriage was not legitimate beneath South Carolina regulation as a result of Brown and Hynie didn’t remarry after the annulment.[111][113] In August 2003, Brown took out a full-page public discover in Selection that includes Hynie, James II and himself on trip at Disney World to announce that he and Hynie had been going their separate methods.[114][115] In 2015, a decide dominated Hynie as Brown’s authorized widow.[108]

Brown had quite a few kids and acknowledged 9 of them together with 5 sons – Teddy (1954–1973), Terry, Larry, Daryl, and James Joseph Brown Jr. and 4 daughters – Lisa, Dr. Yamma Noyola Brown Lumar, Deanna Brown Thomas, and Venisha Brown (1964–2018).[116] Brown additionally had eight grandchildren and 4 great-grandchildren. Brown’s eldest son, Teddy, died in a automobile crash on June 14, 1973.[117] In response to an August 22, 2007, article revealed within the British newspaper The Day by day Telegraph, DNA assessments point out that Brown additionally fathered a minimum of three extramarital kids. The primary considered one of them to be recognized is LaRhonda Pettit (born 1962), a retired flight attendant and instructor who lives in Houston.[118] Throughout contesting of Brown’s will, one other of the Brown household attorneys, Debra Opri, revealed to Larry King that Brown needed a DNA check carried out after his demise to substantiate the paternity of James Brown Jr. (born 2001)—not for Brown’s sake however for the sake of the opposite relations.[119] In April 2007, Hynie chosen a guardian advert litem whom she needed appointed by the courtroom to symbolize her son, James Brown Jr., within the paternity proceedings.[120] James Brown Jr. was confirmed to be his organic son.[121]

Drug abuse

For many of his profession, Brown had a strict drug- and alcohol-free coverage for any member in his entourage, together with band members, and would hearth individuals who disobeyed orders, significantly those that used or abused medication. Though early members of the Well-known Flames had been fired for utilizing alcohol, Brown typically served a highball consisting of Delaware Punch and moonshine at his St. Albans, Queens home within the mid-Nineteen Sixties.[[[Wikipedia:Citing_sources|page needed]]]_122-1′ class=”reference”>[122] By the mid-Eighties, it was broadly alleged that Brown was utilizing medication, with Vicki Anderson confirming to journalist Barney Hoskyns that Brown’s common use of PCP (colloquially generally known as “angel mud”) “started earlier than 1982”.[[[Wikipedia:Citing_sources|page needed]]]_122-3′ class=”reference”>[122]

In January 1998, he spent every week in rehab to take care of an dependancy to unspecified pharmaceuticals. Per week after his launch, he was arrested for an illegal use of a handgun and possession of hashish.[129] Previous to his demise in December 2006, when Brown entered Emory College Hospital, traces of cocaine had been discovered within the singer’s urine.[130] His widow instructed Brown would “do crack” with a feminine acquaintance.[130]

Theft and assault convictions

Brown’s private life was marred by a number of brushes with the regulation. On the age of 16, he was convicted of theft and served three years in juvenile jail. Throughout a live performance held at Membership 15 in Macon, Georgia in 1963, whereas Otis Redding was performing alongside his former band Johnny Jenkins and the Pinetoppers, Brown reportedly tried to shoot his musical rival Joe Tex.[131][132] The incident led to a number of folks being shot and stabbed.[133] Since Brown was nonetheless on parole on the time, he relied on his agent Clint Brantley “and some thousand {dollars} to make the state of affairs disappear”.[133] In response to Jenkins, “seven folks received shot”, and after the shootout ended, a person appeared and gave “every one of many injured 100 {dollars} apiece to not carry it no additional and to not speak to the press”.[133] Brown was by no means charged for the incident.

On July 16, 1978, after performing on the Apollo, Brown was arrested for reportedly failing to show in information from considered one of his radio stations after the station was pressured to file for chapter.[59][134] Brown was arrested on April 3, 1988, for assault,[135] and once more in Might 1988 on drug and weapons fees, and once more on September 24, 1988, following a high-speed automobile chase on Interstate 20 close to the Georgia–South Carolina state border. He was convicted of carrying an unlicensed pistol and assaulting a police officer, together with varied drug-related and driving offenses. Though he was sentenced to 6 years in jail, he was ultimately launched on parole on February 27, 1991, after serving two years of his sentence. Brown’s FBI file, launched to The Washington Publish in 2007 beneath the Freedom of Data Act,[136] associated Brown’s declare that the high-speed chase didn’t happen as claimed by the police, and that native police shot at his automobile a number of instances throughout an incident of police harassment and assaulted him after his arrest.[137] Native authorities discovered no benefit to Brown’s accusations.

In 1998, a lady named Mary Simons accused Brown in a civil swimsuit of holding her captive for 3 days, demanding oral intercourse and firing a gun in his workplace; Simons’ cost was ultimately dismissed.[133] In one other civil swimsuit, filed by former background singer Lisa Rushton alleged that between 1994 and 1999, Brown allegedly demanded sexual favors and when refused, would minimize off her pay and saved her offstage.[133] She additionally claimed Brown would “place a hand on her buttocks and loudly instructed her in a crowded restaurant to not look or communicate to some other man moreover himself;” Rushton ultimately withdrew her lawsuit.[133] In one more civil swimsuit, a lady named Lisa Agbalaya, who labored for Brown, mentioned the singer would inform her he had “bull testicles”, handed her a pair of zebra-print underwear, instructed her to put on them whereas he massaged her with oil, and fired her after she refused.[133] A Los Angeles jury cleared the singer of sexual harassment however discovered him accountable for wrongful termination.[133]

The police had been summoned to Brown’s residence on July 3, 2000, after he was accused of charging at an electrical firm repairman with a steak knife when the repairman visited Brown’s home to analyze a criticism about having no lights on the residence.[138] In 2003, Brown was pardoned by the South Carolina Division of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Companies for previous crimes that he was convicted of committing in South Carolina.[139]

Home violence arrests

Brown was repeatedly arrested for home violence. Adrienne Rodriguez, his third spouse, had him arrested 4 instances between 1987 and 1995 on fees of assault. In a single incident, Rodriguez reported to authorities that Brown beat her with an iron pipe and shot at her automobile.[107][140] Rodriguez was hospitalized after the final assault in October 1995, however fees had been dropped after she died in January 1996.[140]

In January 2004, Brown was arrested in South Carolina on a home violence cost after Tomi Rae Hynie accused him of pushing her to the ground throughout an argument at their residence, the place she suffered scratches and bruises to her proper arm and hip.[141] In June, Brown pleaded no contest to the home violence incident, however served no jail time. As a substitute, Brown was required to forfeit a US$1,087 bond as punishment.[142]

Rape accusation

In January 2005, a lady named Jacque Hollander filed a lawsuit in opposition to James Brown, which stemmed from an alleged 1988 rape. When the case was initially heard earlier than a decide in 2002, Hollander’s claims in opposition to Brown had been dismissed by the courtroom as the constraints interval for submitting the swimsuit had expired. Hollander claimed that stress from the alleged assault later precipitated her to contract Graves’ illness, a thyroid situation. Hollander claimed that the incident befell in South Carolina whereas she was employed by Brown as a publicist. Hollander alleged that, throughout her trip in a van with Brown, Brown pulled over to the aspect of the street and sexually assaulted her whereas he threatened her with a shotgun. In her case in opposition to Brown, Hollander entered as proof a DNA pattern and a polygraph outcome, however the proof was not thought of because of the limitations protection. Hollander later tried to convey her case earlier than the Supreme Court docket, however nothing got here of her criticism.[143]

Later life and demise


James Brown memorial in Augusta, Georgia

On December 23, 2006, Brown grew to become very unwell and arrived at his dentist’s workplace in Atlanta, Georgia, a number of hours late. His appointment was for dental implant work. Throughout that go to, Brown’s dentist noticed that he seemed “very dangerous … weak and dazed”. As a substitute of performing the work, the dentist suggested Brown to see a physician instantly about his medical situation.[144]

Brown went to the Emory Crawford Lengthy Memorial Hospital the following day for medical analysis and was admitted for commentary and therapy.[145] In response to Charles Bobbit, his longtime private supervisor and good friend, Brown had been fighting a loud cough since coming back from a November journey to Europe. But, Bobbit mentioned, the singer had a historical past of by no means complaining about being sick and sometimes carried out whereas unwell.[144] Though Brown needed to cancel upcoming live shows in Waterbury, Connecticut, and Englewood, New Jersey, he was assured that the physician would discharge him from the hospital in time for his scheduled New 12 months’s Eve reveals on the Rely Basie Theatre in New Jersey and the B. B. King Blues Membership in New York, along with performing a track stay on CNN for the Anderson Cooper New 12 months’s Eve particular.[145] Brown remained hospitalized, nonetheless, and his situation worsened all through the day.

Loss of life

On Christmas Day 2006, Brown died at roughly 1:45 a.m. EST (06:45 UTC),[16] at age 73, from congestive coronary heart failure, ensuing from problems of pneumonia. Bobbit was at his bedside[146] and later reported that Brown stuttered, “I am going away tonight”, then took three lengthy, quiet breaths and fell asleep earlier than dying.[147]

In 2019, an investigation by CNN and different journalists led to options that Brown had been murdered.[130][133][140][148][149]

Memorial providers

Public memorial on the Apollo Theater in Harlem

After Brown’s demise, his family, a number of celebrities, and hundreds of followers gathered, on December 28, 2006, for a public memorial service on the Apollo Theater in New York Metropolis and, on December 30, 2006, on the James Brown Area in Augusta, Georgia. A separate, non-public ceremony was held in North Augusta, South Carolina, on December 29, 2006, with Brown’s household in attendance. Celebrities at these varied memorial occasions included Michael Jackson, Jimmy Cliff, Joe Frazier, Buddy Man, Ice Dice, Ludacris, Dr. Dre, Little Richard, Dick Gregory, MC Hammer, Prince, Jesse Jackson, Ice-T, Jerry Lee Lewis, Bootsy Collins, LL Cool J, Lil Wayne, Lenny Kravitz, 50 Cent, Stevie Surprise, and Don King.[150][151][152][153] Rev. Al Sharpton officiated in any respect of Brown’s private and non-private memorial providers.[154][155]

Public funeral in Augusta, Georgia, with Michael Jackson attending

Brown’s memorial ceremonies had been all elaborate, full with costume modifications for the deceased[clarification needed] and movies that includes him in live performance. His physique, positioned in a Promethean casket—bronze polished to a golden shine—was pushed by way of the streets of New York to the Apollo Theater in a white, glass-encased horse-drawn carriage.[156][157] In Augusta, Georgia, his memorial procession stopped to pay respects at his statue, en path to the James Brown Area. Through the public memorial there, a video confirmed Brown’s final efficiency in Augusta, Georgia, with the Ray Charles model of “Georgia on My Thoughts” taking part in soulfully within the background.[150][151][158] His final backup band, The Soul Generals, additionally performed a few of his hits throughout that tribute on the enviornment. The group was joined by Bootsy Collins on bass, with MC Hammer performing a dance in James Brown fashion.[159] Former Temptations lead singer Ali-Ollie Woodson carried out “Stroll Round Heaven All Day” on the memorial providers.[160]

Final will and testomony

Brown signed his final will and testomony on August 1, 2000, earlier than J. Strom Thurmond Jr., an legal professional for the property.[161] The irrevocable belief, separate and aside from Brown’s will, was created on his behalf, that very same 12 months, by his legal professional, Albert “Buddy” Dallas, considered one of three private representatives of Brown’s property. His will coated the disposition of his private property, reminiscent of clothes, automobiles, and jewellery, whereas the irrevocable belief coated the disposition of the music rights, enterprise property of James Brown Enterprises, and his Beech Island, South Carolina property.[162]

Through the studying of the desire on January 11, 2007, Thurmond revealed that Brown’s six grownup residing kids (Terry Brown, Larry Brown, Daryl Brown, Yamma Brown Lumar, Deanna Brown Thomas and Venisha Brown) had been named within the doc, whereas Hynie and James II weren’t talked about as heirs.[161][163] Brown’s will had been signed 10 months earlier than James II was born and greater than a 12 months earlier than Brown’s marriage to Tomi Rae Hynie. Like Brown’s will, his irrevocable belief omitted Hynie and James II as recipients of Brown’s property. The irrevocable belief had additionally been established earlier than, and never amended since, the start of James II.[164]

On January 24, 2007, Brown’s kids filed a lawsuit, petitioning the courtroom to take away the private representatives from the property (together with Brown’s legal professional, in addition to trustee Albert “Buddy” Dallas) and appoint a particular administrator due to perceived impropriety and alleged mismanagement of Brown’s property.[165][166] On January 31, 2007, Hynie additionally filed a lawsuit in opposition to Brown’s property, difficult the validity of the desire and the irrevocable belief. Hynie’s swimsuit requested the courtroom each to acknowledge her as Brown’s widow and to nominate a particular administrator for the property.[167]

On January 27, 2015, Choose Doyet Early III dominated that Tomi Rae Hynie Brown was formally the widow of James Brown. The choice was based mostly on the grounds that Hynie’s earlier marriage was invalid and that James Brown had deserted his efforts to annul his personal marriage to Hynie.[108][168]

On February 19, 2015, the South Carolina Supreme Court docket intervened, halting all decrease courtroom actions within the property and enterprise to evaluation earlier actions itself.[169] The South Carolina Court docket of Appeals in July 2018 dominated that Hynie was, in reality, Mr. Brown’s spouse.[170] In 2020, the South Carolina Supreme Court docket dominated that Hynie had not been legally married to Brown and didn’t have a proper to his property.[171] It was reported in July 2021 that Brown’s household had reached a settlement ending the 15-year battle over the property.[171]


Brown obtained awards and honors all through his lifetime and after his demise. In 1993 the Metropolis Council of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, carried out a ballot of residents to decide on a brand new title for the bridge that crossed the Yampa River on Protect Drive. The profitable title, with 7,717 votes, was “James Brown Soul Heart of the Universe Bridge”. The bridge was formally devoted in September 1993, and Brown appeared on the ribbon-cutting ceremony for the occasion.[172] A petition was began by native ranchers to return the title to “Stockbridge” for historic causes, however they backed off after residents defeated their efforts due to the recognition of Brown’s title. Brown returned to Steamboat Springs, Colorado, on July 4, 2002, for an outside competition, performing with bands reminiscent of The String Cheese Incident.[173]

Throughout his lengthy profession, Brown obtained many prestigious music business awards and honors. In 1983 he was inducted into the Georgia Music Corridor of Fame. Brown was one of many first inductees into the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame at its inaugural induction dinner in New York on January 23, 1986. At the moment, the members of his authentic vocal group, The Well-known Flames (Bobby Byrd, Johnny Terry, Bobby Bennett, and Lloyd Stallworth) weren’t inducted.[174] Nonetheless, on April 14, 2012, The Well-known Flames had been routinely and retroactively inducted into the Corridor of Fame alongside Brown, with out the necessity for nomination and voting, on the premise that they need to have been inducted with him in 1986.[175][176] On February 25, 1992, Brown was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award on the thirty fourth annual Grammy Awards. Precisely a 12 months later, he obtained a Lifetime Achievement Award on the 4th annual Rhythm & Blues Basis Pioneer Awards.[177] A ceremony was held for Brown on January 10, 1997, to honor him with a star on the Hollywood Stroll of Fame.[177]

On June 15, 2000, Brown was honored as an inductee to the New York Songwriters Corridor of Fame. On August 6, 2002, he was honored as the primary BMI City Icon on the BMI City Awards. His BMI accolades embrace a formidable ten R&B Awards and 6 Pop Awards.[178] On November 14, 2006, Brown was inducted into the UK Music Corridor of Fame, and he was considered one of a number of inductees to carry out on the ceremony.[179] In recognition of his accomplishments as an entertainer, Brown was a recipient of Kennedy Heart Honors on December 7, 2003.[177] In 2004 Rolling Stone journal ranked James Brown as No. 7 on its checklist of the 100 Biggest Artists of All Time.[180] In an article for Rolling Stone, critic Robert Christgau cited Brown as “the best musician of the rock period”.[181] He appeared on the BET Awards June 24, 2003, and obtained the Lifetime Achievement Award offered by Michael Jackson, and carried out with him. In 2004, he obtained the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement offered by Awards Council member Aretha Franklin.[182][183]

Statue of James Brown in Augusta

Brown was additionally honored in his hometown of Augusta, Georgia, for his philanthropy and civic actions. On November 20, 1993, Mayor Charles DeVaney of Augusta held a ceremony to dedicate a bit of ninth Avenue between Broad and Twiggs Streets, renamed “James Brown Boulevard”, within the entertainer’s honor.[177] On Might 6, 2005, as a 72nd birthday current for Brown, town of Augusta unveiled a life-sized bronze James Brown statue on Broad Avenue.[177] The statue was to have been devoted a 12 months earlier, however the ceremony was placed on maintain due to a home abuse cost that Brown confronted on the time.[184] In 2005, Charles “Champ” Walker and the We Really feel Good Committee went earlier than the County fee and obtained approval to vary Augusta’s slogan to “We Really feel Good”. Afterward, officers renamed town’s civic heart the James Brown Area, and James Brown attended a ceremony for the revealing of the namesake heart on October 15, 2006.[177]

On December 30, 2006, throughout the public memorial service on the James Brown Area, Dr. Shirley A.R. Lewis, president of Paine Faculty, a traditionally black school in Augusta, Georgia, bestowed posthumously upon Brown an honorary doctorate in recognition and honor of his many contributions to the varsity in its instances of want. Brown had initially been scheduled to obtain the honorary doctorate from Paine Faculty throughout its Might 2007 graduation.[185][186]

Through the forty ninth Annual Grammy Awards presentation on February 11, 2007, James Brown’s well-known cape was draped over a microphone by Danny Ray on the finish of a montage in honor of notable folks within the music business who died throughout the earlier 12 months. Earlier that night, Christina Aguilera delivered an impassioned efficiency of Brown’s hit “It is a Man’s Man’s Man’s World” adopted by a standing ovation, whereas Chris Brown carried out a dance routine in honor of James Brown.[187]

On August 17, 2013, the official R&B Music Corridor of Fame honored and inducted James Brown at a ceremony held on the Waetjen Auditorium at Cleveland State College.

Visitors field public artwork commissioned to be painted by Ms. Robbie Pitts Bellamy in tribute to Brown in 2015

ART THE BOX started in early 2015 as a collaboration between three organizations: the Metropolis of Augusta, the Downtown Improvement Authority and the Higher Augusta Arts Council. 19 native artists had been chosen by a committee to create artwork on 23 native site visitors sign management cupboards (TSCCs). A contest was held to create the James Brown Tribute Field on the nook of James Brown Blvd. (ninth Ave.) and Broad St. This field was designed and painted by native artist, Ms. Robbie Pitts Bellamy and has turn into a favourite picture alternative to guests and locals in Augusta, Georgia.

“I’ve plenty of musical heroes however I believe James Brown is on the high of the checklist”, remarked Public Enemy’s Chuck D. “Completely the funkiest man on Earth … In a black family, James Brown is a part of the material – Motown, Stax, Atlantic and James Brown.”[188]


As a tribute to James Brown, The Rolling Stones coated the track, “I will Go Loopy” from Brown’s Dwell on the Apollo album, throughout their 2007 European tour.[189] Led Zeppelin guitarist Jimmy Web page has remarked, “He [James Brown] was nearly a musical style in his personal proper and he modified and moved ahead the entire time so folks had been capable of study from him.”[190]

On December 22, 2007, the primary annual “Tribute Match For the King of King Information” in honor of James Brown was held on the Madison Theater in Covington, Kentucky. The tribute, organized by Bootsy Collins, featured Tony Wilson as Younger James Brown with appearances by Afrika Bambaataa, Chuck D of Public Enemy, The Soul Generals, Buckethead, Freekbass, Triage and plenty of of Brown’s surviving relations. Comic Michael Coyer was the MC for the occasion. Through the present, the mayor of Cincinnati proclaimed December 22 as James Brown Day.[191]

As of September 2021, a big assortment of James Brown clothes, memorabilia, and private artifacts are on exhibit in downtown Augusta, Georgia on the Augusta Historical past Museum.


Studio albums

  • Please Please Please (1958)
  • Strive Me! (1959)
  • Assume! (1960)
  • The Wonderful James Brown (1961)
  • James Brown and His Well-known Flames Tour the united statesA. (1962)
  • Prisoner of Love (1963)
  • Grits & Soul (1964)
  • Showtime (1964)
  • Out of Sight (1964)
  • James Brown Performs James Brown At this time & Yesterday (1965)
  • Mighty Instrumentals (1966)
  • James Brown Performs New Breed (The Boo-Ga-Bathroom) (1966)
  • James Brown Sings Christmas Songs (1966)
  • Handful of Soul (1966)
  • James Brown Sings Uncooked Soul (1967)
  • James Brown Performs the Actual Factor (1967)
  • Chilly Sweat (1967)
  • I Cannot Stand Myself When You Contact Me (1968)
  • I Bought the Feelin’ (1968)
  • James Brown Performs Nothing However Soul (1968)
  • Considering About Little Willie John and a Few Good Issues (1968)
  • A Soulful Christmas (1968)
  • Say It Loud – I am Black and I am Proud (1969)
  • Gettin’ All the way down to It (1969)
  • The Popcorn (1969)
  • It is a Mom (1969)
  • Ain’t It Funky (1970)
  • Soul on High (1970)
  • It is a New Day – Let a Man Come In (1970)
  • Hey America (1970)
  • Sho Is Funky Down Right here (1971)
  • Sizzling Pants (1971)
  • There It Is (1972)
  • Get on the Good Foot (1972)
  • Black Caesar (1973)
  • Slaughter’s Massive Rip-Off (1973)
  • The Payback (1973)
  • Hell (1974)
  • Actuality (1974)
  • Intercourse Machine At this time (1975)
  • All people’s Doin’ the Hustle & Useless on the Double Bump (1975)
  • Sizzling (1976)
  • Get Up Offa That Factor (1976)
  • Bodyheat (1976)
  • Mutha’s Nature (1977)
  • Jam 1980’s (1978)
  • Take a Take a look at These Truffles (1978)
  • The Unique Disco Man (1979)
  • Folks (1980)
  • Soul Syndrome (1980)
  • Nonstop! (1981)
  • Carry It On! (1983)
  • Gravity (1986)
  • I am Actual (1988)
  • Love Over-Due (1991)
  • Common James (1992)
  • I am Again (1998)
  • The Merry Christmas Album (1999)
  • The Subsequent Step (2002)


  • The T.A.M.I. Present (1964) (live performance movie)- with The Well-known Flames
  • Ski Celebration (1965)- with The Well-known Flames
  • James Brown: Man to Man (1968) (live performance movie)
  • The Phynx (1970)
  • Black Caesar (1973) (soundtrack solely)
  • Slaughter’s Massive Rip-Off (1973) (soundtrack solely)
  • The Blues Brothers (1980)
  • Physician Detroit (1983)
  • Rocky IV (1985)
  • Miami Vice (1987)
  • James Brown: Dwell in East Berlin (1989)
  • The Simpsons (1993)
  • When We Have been Kings (1996) (documentary)
  • Duckman (1997)
  • Soulmates (1997)
  • Blues Brothers 2000 (1998)
  • Holy Man (1998)
  • Undercover Brother (2002)
  • The Tuxedo (2002)
  • The Rent: Beat the Satan (2002) (brief movie)
  • Paper Chasers (2003) (documentary)
  • Soul Survivor (2003) (documentary)
  • Sid Bernstein Presents … (2005) (documentary)
  • Glastonbury (2006) (documentary)
  • Life on the Street with Mr. and Mrs. Brown (2007) (documentary; launch pending)
  • Dwell on the Boston Backyard: April 5, 1968 (2008) (live performance movie)
  • I Bought The Feelin’: James Brown within the ’60s, three-DVD set that includes Dwell on the Boston Backyard: April 5, 1968, Dwell on the Apollo ’68 [DVD version of James Brown: Man to Man], and the documentary The Evening James Brown Saved Boston
  • Soul Energy (2009) (documentary)
  • Get on Up (2014)


  • Mr. Dynamite: The Rise of James Brown (2014), launched in April 2014, written and directed by Alex Gibney, produced by Mick Jagger.
  • Get on Up (2014), launched in theaters on August 1, 2014. Chadwick Boseman performs the position of James Brown within the movie. Initially, Mick Jagger and Brian Grazer had begun producing a documentary movie on Brown in 2013. A fiction movie had been within the planning phases for a few years and was revived when Jagger learn the script by Jez and John-Henry Butterworth.[192]

In different media

Video games

  • Within the online game World of Warcraft, the primary boss character of the Forge of Souls dungeon is Bronjahm, “the Godfather of Souls”. His quotes throughout the struggle are musical references, and he has an opportunity of dropping an merchandise known as “Papa’s Model New Bag”.[193]


  • As himself (voice) within the 1993 The Simpsons episode “Bart’s Interior Youngster”.[194]
  • In 1991, Brown did a Pay Per View Particular with high celebrities reminiscent of Quincy Jones, Rick James, Dan Aykroyd, Gladys Knight, Denzel Washington, MC Hammer and others attended or had been opening acts. This was produced with boxing promoter Buddy Dallas. 15.5 million households tuned in at a price $19.99.[195]
  • In 2002, Brown starred within the Jackie Chan film The Tuxedo as himself

See additionally

  • Progressive soul



  • M. Cordell Thompson (December 30, 1971). “James Brown Goes by way of Some New Adjustments”. Jet. Vol. XLI, no. 14. Johnson Publishing Firm. pp. 54–61.
  • “Singer James Brown in Poor Well being”. Jet. January 6, 2003.
  • Brown, James; Tucker, Bruce (1986). James Brown: The Godfather of Soul. New York: Macmillan.
  • Brown, James; Tucker, Bruce (1997). James Brown: The Godfather of Soul. Thunder’s Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-388-6. Archived from the unique on January 24, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2019 – through worldcat.org.
  • Brown, James; Tucker, Bruce (2002). James Brown: The Godfather of Soul. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 1560253886.
  • Rhodes, Don (2008). Say It Loud! My Recollections of James Brown, Soul Brother No. 1. Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-59921-674-4.
  • Smith, R. J. (2012). The One: The Life and Music of James Brown. New York: Gotham Books. ISBN 9781101561102.
  • Whitburn, Joel (2010). Sizzling R&B Songs From Billboard’s R&B Charts, 1942–2010. Information Analysis Inc. ISBN 978-0-89820-186-4.

Additional studying

  • Danielsen, Anne (2006). Presence and pleasure: The funk grooves of James Brown and Parliament. Wesleyan College Press.
  • George, Nelson, and Leeds, Alan (editors). (2008). The James Brown Reader: 50 Years of Writing in regards to the Godfather of Soul. New York: Plume.
  • Lethem, J. (June 12, 2006). “Being James Brown”, Rolling Stone Journal. Retrieved January 14, 2007. Archived Might 5, 2009, on the Wayback Machine
  • McBride, James (2016) Kill ‘Em and Go away: Trying to find James Brown and the American Soul. New York: Spiegel & Grau
  • Sullivan, James. (2008). The Hardest Working Man: How James Brown Saved The Soul Of America. New York: Gotham Books. ISBN 9781592403905
  • Sussman, M. (producer). (December 25, 2006). Arts: Soul classics by James Brown (multimedia presentation). The New York Instances. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
  • Wesley, Fred. (2002). Hit Me, Fred: Recollections of a Sideman. Durham: Duke College Press.
  • Whitney, Marva and Waring, Charles. (2013) God, The Satan & James Brown:(Memoirs of a Funky Diva). New Romney: Financial institution Home Books

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