Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix

James MarshallJimiHendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Though his mainstream profession spanned solely 4 years, he’s broadly considered one of the vital influential electrical guitarists within the historical past of widespread music, and one of the vital celebrated musicians of the twentieth century. The Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame describes him as “arguably the best instrumentalist within the historical past of rock music”.[1]

Born in Seattle, Washington, Hendrix started taking part in guitar on the age of 15. In 1961, he enlisted within the US Military, however was discharged the next 12 months. Quickly afterward, he moved to Clarksville then Nashville, Tennessee, and commenced taking part in gigs on the chitlin’ circuit, incomes a spot within the Isley Brothers’ backing band and later with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work by way of mid-1965. He then performed with Curtis Knight and the Squires earlier than shifting to England in late 1966 after bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals turned his supervisor. Inside months, Hendrix had earned three UK prime ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Expertise: “Hey Joe”, “Purple Haze”, and “The Wind Cries Mary”. He achieved fame within the US after his efficiency on the Monterey Pop Competition in 1967, and in 1968 his third and ultimate studio album, Electrical Ladyland, reached primary within the US. The double LP was Hendrix’s most commercially profitable launch and his first and solely primary album. The world’s highest-paid performer,[2] he headlined the Woodstock Competition in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Competition in 1970 earlier than his unintentional demise in London from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970.

Hendrix was impressed by American rock and roll and electrical blues. He favored overdriven amplifiers with excessive quantity and achieve, and was instrumental in popularizing the beforehand undesirable sounds brought on by guitar amplifier suggestions. He was additionally one of many first guitarists to make in depth use of tone-altering results items in mainstream rock, reminiscent of fuzz distortion, Octavia, wah-wah, and Uni-Vibe. He was the primary musician to make use of stereophonic phasing results in recordings. Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: “Hendrix pioneered using the instrument as an digital sound supply. Gamers earlier than him had experimented with suggestions and distortion, however Hendrix turned these results and others right into a managed, fluid vocabulary each bit as private because the blues with which he started.”[3]

Hendrix was the recipient of a number of music awards throughout his lifetime and posthumously. In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Yr and in 1968, Billboard named him the Artist of the Yr and Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Yr. Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Prime Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Participant named him the Rock Guitarist of the Yr. The Jimi Hendrix Expertise was inducted into the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Corridor of Fame in 2005. Rolling Stone ranked the band’s three studio albums, Are You Skilled, Axis: Daring as Love, and Electrical Ladyland, among the many 100 biggest albums of all time, they usually ranked Hendrix as the best guitarist and the sixth biggest artist of all time.

Ancestry and childhood

A black and white image (c.1912) of two well-dressed people in their early 20s to late 30s.

Hendrix’s paternal grandparents, Ross and Nora Hendrix, pre-1912

Hendrix had African American and Irish ancestry. His paternal grandfather, Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix, was born in 1866 out of an extramarital affair between a lady named Fanny and a grain service provider from Urbana, Ohio, or Illinois, one of many wealthiest males within the space at the moment.[4][nb 1] Hendrix’s paternal grandmother, Zenora “Nora” Rose Moore, was a former dancer and vaudeville performer.[6][nb 2] Hendrix and Moore relocated to Vancouver, the place they’d a son they named James Allen Hendrix on June 10, 1919; the household referred to as him “Al”.[13]

In 1941, after shifting to Seattle, Al met Lucille Jeter (1925–1958) at a dance; they married on March 31, 1942.[14] Lucille’s father (Jimi’s maternal grandfather) was Preston Jeter (born 1875), whose mom was born in comparable circumstances as Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix.[15] Lucille’s mom, née Clarice Lawson, had African American ancestors who had been slaves.[16] Al, who had been drafted by the US Military to serve in World Struggle II, left to start his primary coaching three days after the marriage.[17] Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 27, 1942, in Seattle; he was the primary of Lucille’s 5 kids. In 1946, Johnny’s mother and father modified his identify to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and his late brother Leon Marshall.[18][nb 3]

Stationed in Alabama on the time of Hendrix’s start, Al was denied the usual navy furlough afforded servicemen for childbirth; his commanding officer positioned him within the stockade to forestall him from going AWOL to see his toddler son in Seattle. He spent two months locked up with out trial, and whereas within the stockade acquired a telegram saying his son’s start.[6][nb 4] Throughout Al’s three-year absence, Lucille struggled to boost their son.[22] When Al was away, Hendrix was principally cared for by members of the family and pals, particularly Lucille’s sister Delores Corridor and her good friend Dorothy Harding.[23] Al acquired an honorable discharge from the US Military on September 1, 1945. Two months later, unable to search out Lucille, Al went to the Berkeley, California, dwelling of a household good friend named Mrs. Champ, who had taken care of and had tried to undertake Hendrix; that is the place Al noticed his son for the primary time.[24]

After getting back from service, Al reunited with Lucille, however his incapability to search out regular work left the household impoverished. They each struggled with alcohol, and sometimes fought when intoxicated. The violence typically drove Hendrix to withdraw and conceal in a closet of their dwelling.[25] His relationship along with his brother Leon (born 1948) was shut however precarious; with Leon out and in of foster care, they lived with an virtually fixed risk of fraternal separation.[26] Along with Leon, Hendrix had three youthful siblings: Joseph, born in 1949, Kathy in 1950, and Pamela, 1951, all of whom Al and Lucille gave as much as foster care and adoption.[27] The household continuously moved, staying in low cost resorts and flats round Seattle. Now and again, members of the family would take Hendrix to Vancouver to remain at his grandmother’s. A shy and delicate boy, he was deeply affected by his life experiences.[28] In later years, he confided to a girlfriend that he had been the sufferer of sexual abuse by a person in uniform.[29] On December 17, 1951, when Hendrix was 9 years previous, his mother and father divorced; the courtroom granted Al custody of him and Leon.[30]

First devices

At Horace Mann Elementary College in Seattle throughout the mid-Fifties, Hendrix’s behavior of carrying a brush with him to emulate a guitar gained the eye of the varsity’s social employee. After greater than a 12 months of his clinging to a brush like a safety blanket, she wrote a letter requesting college funding supposed for underprivileged kids, insisting that leaving him with no guitar would possibly lead to psychological injury.[31] Her efforts failed, and Al refused to purchase him a guitar.[31][nb 5]

In 1957, whereas serving to his father with a side-job, Hendrix discovered a ukulele amongst the rubbish they have been eradicating from an older girl’s dwelling. She instructed him that he may maintain the instrument, which had just one string.[33] Studying by ear, he performed single notes, following alongside to Elvis Presley songs, notably “Hound Canine”.[34][nb 6] By the age of 33, Hendrix’s mom Lucille had developed cirrhosis of the liver, and on February 2, 1958, she died when her spleen ruptured.[36] Al refused to take James and Leon to attend their mom’s funeral; he as an alternative gave them pictures of whiskey and instructed them that was how males ought to cope with loss.[36][nb 7] In 1958, Hendrix accomplished his research at Washington Junior Excessive College and commenced attending, however didn’t graduate from, Garfield Excessive College.[37][nb 8]

In mid-1958, at age 15, Hendrix acquired his first acoustic guitar, for $5[40] (equal to $45 in 2020). He performed for hours every day, watching others and studying from extra skilled guitarists, and listening to blues artists reminiscent of Muddy Waters, B.B. King, Howlin’ Wolf, and Robert Johnson.[41] The primary tune Hendrix discovered to play was the tv theme “Peter Gunn”.[42] Round that point, Hendrix jammed with boyhood good friend Sammy Drain and his keyboard-playing brother.[43] In 1959, attending a live performance by Hank Ballard & the Midnighters in Seattle, Hendrix met the group’s guitarist Billy Davis.[44] Davis confirmed him some guitar licks and acquired him a brief gig with the Midnighters.[45] The 2 remained pals till Hendrix’s demise in 1970.[46]

Quickly after he acquired the acoustic guitar, Hendrix shaped his first band, the Velvetones. With out an electrical guitar, he may barely be heard over the sound of the group. After about three months, he realized that he wanted an electrical guitar.[47] In mid-1959, his father relented and acquired him a white Supro Ozark.[47] Hendrix’s first gig was with an unnamed band within the Jaffe Room of Seattle’s Temple De Hirsch, however they fired him between units for exhibiting off.[48] He joined the Rocking Kings, which performed professionally at venues such because the Birdland membership. When his guitar was stolen after he left it backstage in a single day, Al purchased him a crimson Silvertone Danelectro.[49]

Army service

A black and white photograph of five men wearing Army uniforms and standing together as a group

Hendrix within the US Military, 1961

Earlier than Hendrix was 19 years previous, legislation authorities had twice caught him driving in stolen vehicles. Given a alternative between jail or becoming a member of the Military, he selected the latter and enlisted on Might 31, 1961.[50] After finishing eight weeks of primary coaching at Fort Ord, California, he was assigned to the a hundred and first Airborne Division and stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky.[51] He arrived on November 8, and shortly afterward he wrote to his father: “There’s nothing however bodily coaching and harassment right here for 2 weeks, then while you go to leap college … you get hell. They work you to demise, fussing and preventing.”[52] In his subsequent letter dwelling, Hendrix, who had left his guitar in Seattle on the dwelling of his girlfriend Betty Jean Morgan, requested his father to ship it to him as quickly as doable, stating: “I actually need it now.”[52] His father obliged and despatched the crimson Silvertone Danelectro on which Hendrix had hand-painted the phrases “Betty Jean” to Fort Campbell.[53] His obvious obsession with the instrument contributed to his neglect of his duties, which led to taunting and bodily abuse from his friends, who a minimum of as soon as hid the guitar from him till he had begged for its return.[54] In November 1961, fellow serviceman Billy Cox walked previous a military membership and heard Hendrix taking part in.[55] Impressed by Hendrix’s approach, which Cox described as a mix of “John Lee Hooker and Beethoven”, Cox borrowed a bass guitar and the 2 jammed.[56] Inside weeks, they started acting at base golf equipment on the weekends with different musicians in a loosely organized band, the Casuals.[57]

Hendrix accomplished his paratrooper coaching and, on January 11, 1962, Main Common C. W. G. Wealthy awarded him the distinguished Screaming Eagles patch.[52] By February, his private conduct had begun to attract criticism from his superiors. They labeled him an unqualified marksman and sometimes caught him napping whereas on obligation and failing to report for mattress checks.[58] On Might 24, Hendrix’s platoon sergeant, James C. Spears, filed a report through which he said: “He has no curiosity by any means within the Military … It’s my opinion that Non-public Hendrix won’t ever come as much as the requirements required of a soldier. I really feel that the navy service will profit if he’s discharged as quickly as doable.”[59] On June 29, 1962, Hendrix was granted a common discharge underneath honorable situations.[60] Hendrix later spoke of his dislike of the military and that he had acquired a medical discharge after breaking his ankle throughout his twenty sixth parachute soar.[61][nb 9] Nonetheless, no Military information have been produced that point out that he acquired or was discharged for any accidents.[63]


Early years

In September 1963, after Cox was discharged from the Military, he and Hendrix moved about 20 miles (32 km) throughout the state line from Fort Campbell to Clarksville, Tennessee, and shaped a band, the King Kasuals.[64] In Seattle, Hendrix noticed Butch Snipes play along with his enamel and now the Kasuals’ second guitarist, Alphonso “Child Boo” Younger, was performing this guitar gimmick.[65] To not be upstaged, Hendrix additionally discovered to play on this method. He later defined: “The thought of doing that got here to me … in Tennessee. Down there it’s a must to play together with your enamel or else you get shot. There is a path of damaged enamel everywhere in the stage.”[66]

Though they started taking part in low-paying gigs at obscure venues, the band ultimately moved to Nashville’s Jefferson Road, which was the standard coronary heart of town’s black group and residential to a thriving rhythm and blues music scene.[67] They earned a quick residency taking part in at a preferred venue on the town, the Membership del Morocco, and for the subsequent two years Hendrix made a dwelling acting at a circuit of venues all through the South that have been affiliated with the Theater House owners’ Reserving Affiliation (TOBA), broadly generally known as the chitlin’ circuit.[68] Along with taking part in in his personal band, Hendrix carried out as a backing musician for numerous soul, R&B, and blues musicians, together with Wilson Pickett, Slim Harpo, Sam Cooke, Ike & Tina Turner[69] and Jackie Wilson.[70]

In January 1964, feeling he had outgrown the circuit artistically, and pissed off by having to observe the principles of bandleaders, Hendrix determined to enterprise out on his personal. He moved into the Lodge Theresa in Harlem, the place he befriended Lithofayne Pridgon, generally known as “Faye”, who turned his girlfriend.[71] A Harlem native with connections all through the realm’s music scene, Pridgon offered him with shelter, help, and encouragement.[72] Hendrix additionally met the Allen twins, Arthur and Albert.[73][nb 10] In February 1964, Hendrix gained first prize within the Apollo Theater novice contest.[75] Hoping to safe a profession alternative, he performed the Harlem membership circuit and sat in with numerous bands. On the suggestion of a former affiliate of Joe Tex, Ronnie Isley granted Hendrix an audition that led to a proposal to change into the guitarist with the Isley Brothers’ backing band, the I.B. Specials, which he readily accepted.[76]

First recordings

In March 1964, Hendrix recorded the two-part single “Testify” with the Isley Brothers. Launched in June, it did not chart.[77] In Might, he offered guitar instrumentation for the Don Covay track, “Mercy Mercy”. Issued in August by Rosemart Information and distributed by Atlantic, the observe reached quantity 35 on the Billboard chart.[78]

Hendrix toured with the Isleys throughout a lot of 1964, however close to the tip of October, after rising uninterested in taking part in the identical set each night time, he left the band.[79][nb 11] Quickly afterward, Hendrix joined Little Richard’s touring band, the Upsetters.[81] Throughout a cease in Los Angeles in February 1965, he recorded his first and solely single with Richard, “I Do not Know What You Acquired (However It is Acquired Me)”, written by Don Covay and launched by Vee-Jay Information.[82] Richard’s recognition was waning on the time, and the only peaked at quantity 92, the place it remained for one week earlier than dropping off the chart.[83][nb 12] Hendrix met singer Rosa Lee Brooks whereas staying on the Wilcox Lodge in Hollywood, and he or she invited him to take part in a recording session for her single, which included the Arthur Lee penned “My Diary” because the A-side, and “Utee” because the B-side.[85] Hendrix performed guitar on each tracks, which additionally included background vocals by Lee. The one did not chart, however Hendrix and Lee started a friendship that lasted a number of years; Hendrix later turned an ardent supporter of Lee’s band, Love.[85]

In July 1965, Hendrix made his first tv look on Nashville’s Channel 5 Evening Prepare. Performing in Little Richard’s ensemble band, he backed up vocalists Buddy and Stacy on “Shotgun”. The video recording of the present marks the earliest recognized footage of Hendrix performing.[81] Richard and Hendrix typically clashed over tardiness, wardrobe, and Hendrix’s stage antics, and in late July, Richard’s brother Robert fired him.[86] On July 27, Hendrix signed his first recording contract with Juggy Murray at Sue Information and Copa Administration.[87][88] He then briefly rejoined the Isley Brothers, and recorded a second single with them, “Transfer Over and Let Me Dance” backed with “Have You Ever Been Disenchanted”.[89] Later that 12 months, he joined a New York-based R&B band, Curtis Knight and the Squires, after assembly Knight within the foyer of a lodge the place each males have been staying.[90] Hendrix carried out with them for eight months.[91] In October 1965, he and Knight recorded the only, “How Would You Really feel” backed with “Welcome House”. Regardless of his two-year contract with Sue,[92] Hendrix signed a three-year recording contract with entrepreneur Ed Chalpin on October 15.[93] Whereas the connection with Chalpin was short-lived, his contract remained in pressure, which later triggered authorized and profession issues for Hendrix.[94][nb 13] Throughout his time with Knight, Hendrix briefly toured with Joey Dee and the Starliters, and labored with King Curtis on a number of recordings together with Ray Sharpe’s two-part single, “Assist Me”.[96] Hendrix earned his first composer credit for 2 instrumentals, “Hornets Nest” and “Knock Your self Out”, launched as a Curtis Knight and the Squires single in 1966.[97][nb 14]

Feeling restricted by his experiences as an R&B sideman, Hendrix moved in 1966 to New York Metropolis’s Greenwich Village, which had a vibrant and numerous music scene.[102] There, he was provided a residency on the Cafe Wha? on MacDougal Road and shaped his personal band that June, Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, which included future Spirit guitarist Randy California.[103][nb 15] The Blue Flames performed at a number of golf equipment in New York and Hendrix started creating his guitar model and materials that he would quickly use with the Expertise.[105][106] In September, they gave a few of their final concert events on the Cafe Au Go Go in Manhattan, because the backing group for singer and guitarist then billed as John Hammond.[107][nb 16]

The Jimi Hendrix Expertise

A black and white photograph of three men, one is sitting on the floor.

The Expertise in 1968

By Might 1966, Hendrix was struggling to earn a dwelling wage taking part in the R&B circuit, so he briefly rejoined Curtis Knight and the Squires for an engagement at certainly one of New York Metropolis’s hottest nightspots, the Cheetah Membership.[108] Throughout a efficiency, Linda Keith, the girlfriend of Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards, observed Hendrix and was “mesmerised” by his taking part in.[108] She invited him to hitch her for a drink, and the 2 turned pals.[108]

Whereas Hendrix was taking part in with Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, Keith really helpful him to Stones supervisor Andrew Loog Oldham and producer Seymour Stein. They did not see Hendrix’s musical potential, and rejected him.[109] Keith referred him to Chas Chandler, who was leaving the Animals and was fascinated by managing and producing artists.[110] Chandler noticed Hendrix play in Cafe Wha?, a Greenwich Village, New York Metropolis nightclub.[110] Chandler appreciated the Billy Roberts track “Hey Joe”, and was satisfied he may create a success single with the suitable artist.[111] Impressed with Hendrix’s model of the track, he introduced him to London on September 24, 1966,[112] and signed him to a administration and manufacturing contract with himself and ex-Animals supervisor Michael Jeffery.[113] That night time, Hendrix gave an impromptu solo efficiency at The Scotch of St James, and commenced a relationship with Kathy Etchingham that lasted for 2 and a half years.[114][nb 17]

A black and white photograph of a man playing an electric guitar.

Hendrix on stage at Gröna Lund in Stockholm, Sweden in June 1967

Following Hendrix’s arrival in London, Chandler started recruiting members for a band designed to focus on his skills, the Jimi Hendrix Expertise.[116] Hendrix met guitarist Noel Redding at an audition for the New Animals, the place Redding’s data of blues progressions impressed Hendrix, who said that he additionally appreciated Redding’s coiffure.[117] Chandler requested Redding if he needed to play bass guitar in Hendrix’s band; Redding agreed.[117] Chandler started searching for a drummer and shortly after contacted Mitch Mitchell by way of a mutual good friend. Mitchell, who had just lately been fired from Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, participated in a rehearsal with Redding and Hendrix the place they discovered widespread floor of their shared curiosity in rhythm and blues. When Chandler phoned Mitchell later that day to supply him the place, he readily accepted.[118] Chandler additionally satisfied Hendrix to vary the spelling of his first identify from Jimmy to the extra unique Jimi.[119]

On October 1, 1966, Chandler introduced Hendrix to the London Polytechnic at Regent Road, the place Cream was scheduled to carry out, and the place Hendrix and guitarist Eric Clapton met.[120] Clapton later stated: “He requested if he may play a few numbers. I stated, ‘After all’, however I had a humorous feeling about him.”[116] Midway by way of Cream’s set, Hendrix took the stage and carried out a frantic model of the Howlin’ Wolf track “Killing Ground”.[116] In 1989, Clapton described the efficiency: “He performed nearly each model you would consider, and never in a flashy method. I imply he did a number of of his tips, like taking part in along with his enamel and behind his again, however it wasn’t in an upstaging sense in any respect, and that was it … He walked off, and my life was by no means the identical once more”.[116]

UK success

In mid-October 1966, Chandler organized an engagement for the Expertise as Johnny Hallyday’s supporting act throughout a quick tour of France.[119] Thus, the Jimi Hendrix Expertise carried out their first present on October 13, 1966, on the Novelty in Evreux.[121] Their enthusiastically acquired 15-minute efficiency on the Olympia theatre in Paris on October 18 marks the earliest recognized recording of the band.[119] In late October, Package Lambert and Chris Stamp, managers of the Who, signed the Expertise to their newly shaped label, Monitor Information, and the group recorded their first track, “Hey Joe”, on October 23.[122] “Stone Free”, which was Hendrix’s first songwriting effort after arriving in England, was recorded on November 2.[123]

A black and white photograph of a man playing an electric guitar.

Hendrix on Might 10, 1968

In mid-November, they carried out on the Bag O’Nails nightclub in London, with Clapton, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend, Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, and Kevin Ayers in attendance.[124] Ayers described the group’s response as shocked disbelief: “All the celebrities have been there, and I heard critical feedback, you already know ‘shit’, ‘Jesus’, ‘rattling’ and different phrases worse than that.”[124] The efficiency earned Hendrix his first interview, revealed in Document Mirror with the headline: “Mr. Phenomenon”.[124] “Now hear this … we predict that [Hendrix] goes to whirl across the enterprise like a twister”, wrote Invoice Harry, who requested the rhetorical query: “Is that full, massive, swinging sound actually being created by solely three individuals?”[125] Hendrix stated: “We do not need to be classed in any class … If it will need to have a tag, I might prefer it to be referred to as, ‘Free Feeling’. It is a combination of rock, freak-out, rave and blues”.[126] By a distribution cope with Polydor Information, the Expertise’s first single, “Hey Joe”, backed with “Stone Free”, was launched on December 16, 1966.[127] After appearances on the UK tv reveals Prepared Regular Go! and the Prime of the Pops, “Hey Joe” entered the UK charts on December 29 and peaked at quantity six.[128] Additional success got here in March 1967 with the UK quantity three hit “Purple Haze”, and in Might with “The Wind Cries Mary”, which remained on the UK charts for eleven weeks, peaking at quantity six.[129] On March 12, 1967, he carried out on the Troutbeck Lodge, Ilkley, West Yorkshire, the place, after about 900 individuals turned up (the lodge was licensed for 250) the native police stopped the gig as a result of security considerations.[130]

On March 31, 1967, whereas the Expertise waited to carry out on the London Astoria, Hendrix and Chandler mentioned methods through which they may enhance the band’s media publicity. When Chandler requested journalist Keith Altham for recommendation, Altham recommended that they wanted to do one thing extra dramatic than the stage present of the Who, which concerned the smashing of devices. Hendrix joked: “Possibly I can smash up an elephant”, to which Altham replied: “Nicely, it is a pity you possibly can’t set fireplace to your guitar”.[131] Chandler then requested highway supervisor Gerry Stickells to acquire some lighter fluid. In the course of the present, Hendrix gave an particularly dynamic efficiency earlier than setting his guitar on fireplace on the finish of a 45-minute set. Within the wake of the stunt, members of London’s press labeled Hendrix the “Black Elvis” and the “Wild Man of Borneo”.[132][nb 18]

Are You Skilled

After the UK chart success of their first two singles, “Hey Joe” and “Purple Haze”, the Expertise started assembling materials for a full-length LP.[134] In London, recording started at De Lane Lea Studios, and later moved to the distinguished Olympic Studios.[134] The album, Are You Skilled, incorporates a range of musical types, together with blues tracks reminiscent of “Pink Home” and “Freeway Chile”, and the R&B track “Bear in mind”.[135] It additionally included the experimental science fiction piece, “Third Stone from the Solar” and the post-modern soundscapes of the title observe, with outstanding backwards guitar and drums.[136] “I Do not Stay In the present day” served as a medium for Hendrix’s guitar suggestions improvisation and “Fireplace” was pushed by Mitchell’s drumming.[134]

Launched within the UK on Might 12, 1967, Are You Skilled spent 33 weeks on the charts, peaking at quantity two.[137][nb 19] It was prevented from reaching the highest spot by The BeatlesSgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Membership Band.[139][nb 20] On June 4, 1967, Hendrix opened a present on the Saville Theatre in London along with his rendition of Sgt. Pepper‘s title observe, which was launched simply three days earlier. Beatles supervisor Brian Epstein owned the Saville on the time, and each George Harrison and Paul McCartney attended the efficiency. McCartney described the second: “The curtains flew again and he got here strolling ahead taking part in ‘Sgt. Pepper’. It is a fairly main praise in anybody’s guide. I put that down as one of many nice honors of my profession.”[140] Launched within the US on August 23 by Reprise Information, Are You Skilled reached quantity 5 on the Billboard 200.[141][nb 21]

In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World, described Are You Skilled as “the album that shook the world … leaving it without end modified”.[143][nb 22] In 2005, Rolling Stone referred to as the double-platinum LP Hendrix’s “epochal debut”, they usually ranked it the fifteenth biggest album of all time, noting his “exploitation of amp howl”, and characterizing his guitar taking part in as “incendiary … historic in itself”.[145]

Monterey Pop Competition

A color photograph of a man kneeling over a guitar that is on fire

Writer Michael Heatley wrote: “The enduring picture by Ed Caraeff of Hendrix summoning the flames larger along with his fingers will without end conjure up recollections of Monterey for many who have been there and nearly all of us who weren’t.”[146]

Though widespread in Europe on the time, the Expertise’s first US single, “Hey Joe”, failed to succeed in the Billboard Scorching 100 chart upon its launch on Might 1, 1967.[147] Their fortunes improved when McCartney really helpful them to the organizers of the Monterey Pop Competition. He insisted that the occasion could be incomplete with out Hendrix, whom he referred to as “an absolute ace on the guitar”. McCartney agreed to hitch the board of organizers on the situation that the Expertise carry out on the pageant in mid-June.[148]

On June 18, 1967,[149] launched by Brian Jones as “probably the most thrilling performer [he had] ever heard”, Hendrix opened with a quick association of Howlin’ Wolf’s track “Killing Ground”, carrying what writer Keith Shadwick described as “garments as unique as any on show elsewhere”.[150] Shadwick wrote: “[Hendrix] was not solely one thing totally new musically, however a wholly unique imaginative and prescient of what a black American entertainer ought to and will seem like.”[151] The Expertise went on to carry out renditions of “Hey Joe”, B.B. King’s “Rock Me Child”, Chip Taylor’s “Wild Factor”, and Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, and 4 unique compositions: “Cunning Girl”, “Can You See Me”, “The Wind Cries Mary”, and “Purple Haze”.[140] The set ended with Hendrix destroying his guitar and tossing items of it out to the viewers.[152] Rolling Stone‘s Alex Vadukul wrote:

When Jimi Hendrix set his guitar on fireplace on the 1967 Monterey Pop Competition he created certainly one of rock’s most excellent moments. Standing within the entrance row of that live performance was a 17-year-old boy named Ed Caraeff. Caraeff had by no means seen Hendrix earlier than nor heard his music, however he had a digicam with him and there was one shot left in his roll of movie. As Hendrix lit his guitar, Caraeff took a ultimate picture. It might change into one of the vital well-known photos in rock and roll.[153][nb 23]

Caraeff stood on a chair subsequent to the sting of the stage and took 4 monochrome photos of Hendrix burning his guitar.[156][nb 24] Caraeff was shut sufficient to the fireplace that he had to make use of his digicam to guard his face from the warmth. Rolling Stone later colorized the picture, matching it with different photos taken on the pageant earlier than utilizing the shot for a 1987 journal cowl.[156] In response to writer Gail Buckland, the ultimate body of “Hendrix kneeling in entrance of his burning guitar, fingers raised, is likely one of the most well-known photos in rock”.[156] Writer and historian Matthew C. Whitaker wrote that “Hendrix’s burning of his guitar turned an iconic picture in rock historical past and introduced him nationwide consideration”.[157] The Los Angeles Occasions asserted that, upon leaving the stage, Hendrix “graduated from rumor to legend”.[158] Writer John McDermott wrote that “Hendrix left the Monterey viewers shocked and in disbelief at what they’d simply heard and seen”.[159] In response to Hendrix: “I made a decision to destroy my guitar on the finish of a track as a sacrifice. You sacrifice belongings you love. I like my guitar.”[160] The efficiency was filmed by D. A. Pennebaker, and included within the live performance documentary Monterey Pop, which helped Hendrix achieve recognition with the US public.[161]

After the pageant, the Expertise was booked for 5 concert events at Invoice Graham’s Fillmore, with Huge Brother and the Holding Firm and Jefferson Airplane. The Expertise outperformed Jefferson Airplane throughout the first two nights, and changed them on the prime of the invoice on the fifth.[162] Following their profitable West Coast introduction, which included a free open-air live performance at Golden Gate Park and a live performance on the Whisky a Go Go, the Expertise was booked because the opening act for the primary American tour of the Monkees.[163] The Monkees requested Hendrix as a supporting act as a result of they have been followers, however their younger viewers disliked the Expertise, who left the tour after six reveals.[164] Chandler later stated he engineered the tour to realize publicity for Hendrix.[165]

Axis: Daring as Love

The second Expertise album, Axis: Daring as Love, opens with the observe “EXP”, which makes use of microphonic and harmonic suggestions in a brand new, inventive vogue.[166] It additionally showcased an experimental stereo panning impact through which sounds emanating from Hendrix’s guitar transfer by way of the stereo picture, revolving across the listener.[167] The piece mirrored his rising curiosity in science fiction and outer area.[168] He composed the album’s title observe and finale round two verses and two choruses, throughout which he pairs feelings with personas, evaluating them to colours.[169] The track’s coda options the primary recording of stereo phasing.[170][nb 25] Shadwick described the composition as “presumably probably the most formidable piece on Axis, the extravagant metaphors of the lyrics suggesting a rising confidence” in Hendrix’s songwriting.[172] His guitar taking part in all through the track is marked by chordal arpeggios and contrapuntal movement, with tremolo-picked partial chords offering the musical basis for the refrain, which culminates in what musicologist Andy Aledort described as “merely one of many biggest electrical guitar solos ever performed”.[173] The observe fades out on tremolo-picked thirty second be aware double stops.[174]

The scheduled launch date for Axis was virtually delayed when Hendrix misplaced the grasp tape of aspect one of many LP, leaving it within the again seat of a London taxi.[175] With the deadline looming, Hendrix, Chandler, and engineer Eddie Kramer remixed most of aspect one in a single in a single day session, however they may not match the standard of the misplaced mixture of “If 6 Was 9”. Redding had a tape recording of this combine, which needed to be smoothed out with an iron because it had gotten wrinkled.[176] In the course of the verses, Hendrix doubled his singing with a guitar line which he performed one octave decrease than his vocals.[177] Hendrix voiced his disappointment about having re-mixed the album so shortly, and he felt that it may have been higher had they been given extra time.[175]

Axis featured psychedelic cowl artwork that depicts Hendrix and the Expertise as numerous avatars of Vishnu, incorporating a portray of them by Roger Legislation, from a photo-portrait by Karl Ferris.[178] The portray was then superimposed on a replica of a mass-produced spiritual poster.[179] Hendrix said that the quilt, which Monitor spent $5,000 producing, would have been extra applicable had it highlighted his American Indian heritage.[180] He stated: “You bought it improper … I am not that form of Indian.”[180] Monitor launched the album within the UK on December 1, 1967, the place it peaked at quantity 5, spending 16 weeks on the charts.[181] In February 1968, Axis: Daring as Love reached quantity three within the US.[182]

Whereas writer and journalist Richie Unterberger described Axis because the least spectacular Expertise album, based on writer Peter Doggett, the discharge “heralded a brand new subtlety in Hendrix’s work”.[183] Mitchell stated: “Axis was the primary time that it turned obvious that Jimi was fairly good working behind the blending board, in addition to taking part in, and had some constructive concepts of how he needed issues recorded. It may have been the beginning of any potential battle between him and Chas within the studio.”[184]

Electrical Ladyland

Recording for the Expertise’s third and ultimate studio album, Electrical Ladyland, started as early as December 20, 1967, at Olympic Studios.[185] A number of songs have been tried; nonetheless, in April 1968, the Expertise, with Chandler as producer and engineers Eddie Kramer and Gary Kellgren, moved the periods to the newly opened Document Plant Studios in New York.[186] Because the periods progressed, Chandler turned more and more pissed off with Hendrix’s perfectionism and his calls for for repeated takes.[187] Hendrix additionally allowed quite a few pals and friends to hitch them within the studio, which contributed to a chaotic and crowded atmosphere within the management room and led Chandler to sever his skilled relationship with Hendrix.[187] Redding later recalled: “There have been tons of individuals within the studio; you could not transfer. It was a celebration, not a session.”[188] Redding, who had shaped his personal band in mid-1968, Fats Mattress, discovered it more and more troublesome to meet his commitments with the Expertise, so Hendrix performed most of the bass components on Electrical Ladyland.[187] The album’s cowl said that it was “produced and directed by Jimi Hendrix”.[187][nb 26]
In the course of the Electrical Ladyland recording periods, Hendrix started experimenting with different combos of musicians, together with Jefferson Airplane’s Jack Casady and Site visitors’s Steve Winwood, who performed bass and organ, respectively, on the 15-minute slow-blues jam, “Voodoo Chile”.[187] In the course of the album’s manufacturing, Hendrix appeared at an impromptu jam with B.B. King, Al Kooper, and Elvin Bishop.[190][nb 27] Electrical Ladyland was launched on October 25, and by mid-November it had reached primary within the US, spending two weeks on the prime spot.[192] The double LP was Hendrix’s most commercially profitable launch and his solely primary album.[193] It peaked at quantity six within the UK, spending 12 weeks on the chart.[129] Electrical Ladyland included Hendrix’s cowl of a Bob Dylan track, “All Alongside the Watchtower”, which turned Hendrix’s highest-selling single and his solely US prime 40 hit, peaking at quantity 20; the only reached quantity 5 within the UK.[194] “Burning of the Midnight Lamp”, his first recorded track to function a wah-wah pedal, was added to the album.[195] It was initially launched as his fourth single within the UK in August 1967[196] and reached quantity 18 on the charts.[197]

In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World, described Electrical Ladyland as “Hendrix’s masterpiece”.[198] In response to writer Michael Heatley, “most critics agree” that the album is “the fullest realization of Jimi’s far-reaching ambitions.”[187] In 2004, writer Peter Doggett wrote: “For pure experimental genius, melodic aptitude, conceptual imaginative and prescient and instrumental brilliance, Electrical Ladyland stays a chief contender for the standing of rock’s biggest album.”[199] Doggett described the LP as “a show of musical virtuosity by no means surpassed by any rock musician.”[199]

Break-up of the Expertise

A color photograph of two adjacent buildings, the one on the left is white and the on the right is dark brown.

The white constructing (left) is 23 Brook Road; the constructing on the suitable is the Handel Home Museum.

In January 1969, after an absence of greater than six months, Hendrix briefly moved again into his girlfriend Kathy Etchingham’s Brook Road condo, which was subsequent door to what’s now the Handel Home Museum within the West Finish of London.[200][nb 28] After a efficiency of “Voodoo Baby”, on BBC’s Taking place for Lulu present in January 1969, the band stopped halfway by way of an try at their first hit “Hey Joe” after which launched into an instrumental model of “Sunshine of Your Love”, as a tribute to the just lately disbanded band Cream, till producers introduced the track to a untimely finish.[202] As a result of the unplanned efficiency precluded Lulu’s normal closing quantity, Hendrix was instructed he would by no means work on the BBC once more.[203] Throughout this time, the Expertise toured Scandinavia, Germany, and gave their ultimate two performances in France.[204] On February 18 and 24, they performed sold-out concert events at London’s Royal Albert Corridor, which have been the final European appearances of this lineup.[205][nb 29]

By February 1969, Redding had grown weary of Hendrix’s unpredictable work ethic and his inventive management over the Expertise’s music.[206] In the course of the earlier month’s European tour, interpersonal relations throughout the group had deteriorated, notably between Hendrix and Redding.[207] In his diary, Redding documented the constructing frustration throughout early 1969 recording periods: “On the primary day, as I almost anticipated, there was nothing doing … On the second it was no present in any respect. I went to the pub for 3 hours, got here again, and it was nonetheless ages earlier than Jimi ambled in. Then we argued … On the final day, I simply watched it occur for some time, after which went again to my flat.”[207] The final Expertise periods that included Redding—a re-recording of “Stone Free” to be used as a doable single launch—occurred on April 14 at Olmstead and the Document Plant in New York.[208] Hendrix then flew bassist Billy Cox to New York; they began recording and rehearsing collectively on April 21.[209]

The final efficiency of the unique Expertise lineup occurred on June 29, 1969, at Barry Fey’s Denver Pop Competition, a three-day occasion held at Denver’s Mile Excessive Stadium that was marked by police utilizing tear gasoline to manage the viewers.[210] The band narrowly escaped from the venue at the back of a rental truck, which was partly crushed by followers who had climbed on prime of the car.[211] Earlier than the present, a journalist angered Redding by asking why he was there; the reporter then knowledgeable him that two weeks earlier Hendrix introduced that he had been changed with Billy Cox.[212] The following day, Redding stop the Expertise and returned to London.[210] He introduced that he had left the band and supposed to pursue a solo profession, blaming Hendrix’s plans to increase the group with out permitting for his enter as a major motive for leaving.[213] Redding later stated: “Mitch and I frolicked loads collectively, however we’re English. If we would exit, Jimi would keep in his room. However any unhealthy emotions got here from us being three guys who have been touring too onerous, getting too drained, and taking too many medication … I appreciated Hendrix. I do not like Mitchell.”[214]

Quickly after Redding’s departure, Hendrix started lodging on the eight-bedroom Ashokan Home, within the hamlet of Boiceville close to Woodstock in upstate New York, the place he had spent a while vacationing in mid-1969.[215] Supervisor Michael Jeffery organized the lodging within the hope that the respite would possibly encourage Hendrix to put in writing materials for a brand new album. Throughout this time, Mitchell was unavailable for commitments made by Jeffery, which included Hendrix’s first look on US TV—on The Dick Cavett Present—the place he was backed by the studio orchestra, and an look on The Tonight Present the place he appeared with Cox and session drummer Ed Shaughnessy.[212]


A color image of three men standing on stage performing music

Hendrix flashed a peace signal in the beginning of his efficiency of “The Star-Spangled Banner” at Woodstock, August 18, 1969.[216]

By 1969, Hendrix was the world’s highest-paid rock musician.[2] In August, he headlined the Woodstock Music and Artwork Honest that included most of the hottest bands of the time.[217] For the live performance, he added rhythm guitarist Larry Lee and conga gamers Juma Sultan and Jerry Velez. The band rehearsed for lower than two weeks earlier than the efficiency, and based on Mitchell, they by no means related musically.[218] Earlier than arriving on the engagement, Hendrix heard reviews that the dimensions of the viewers had grown enormously, which involved him as he didn’t get pleasure from performing for big crowds.[219] He was an vital draw for the occasion, and though he accepted considerably much less cash for the looks than his normal payment, he was the pageant’s highest-paid performer.[220][nb 30]

Hendrix determined to maneuver his midnight Sunday slot to Monday morning, closing the present. The band took the stage round 8:00 a.m,[222] by which period Hendrix had been awake for greater than three days.[223] The viewers, which peaked at an estimated 400,000 individuals, was decreased to 30,000–40,000, a lot of whom had waited to catch a glimpse of Hendrix earlier than leaving throughout his efficiency.[219] The pageant MC, Chip Monck, launched the group as “the Jimi Hendrix Expertise”, however Hendrix clarified: “We determined to vary the entire thing round and name it ‘Gypsy Solar and Rainbows’. For brief, it is nothin’ however a ‘Band of Gypsys’.”[224]

Hendrix’s efficiency included a rendition of the US nationwide anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner”, with copious suggestions, distortion, and maintain to mimic the sounds made by rockets and bombs.[225] Modern political pundits described his interpretation as a press release towards the Vietnam Struggle. Three weeks later Hendrix stated: “We’re all Individuals … it was like ‘Go America!’… We play it the best way the air is in America at this time. The air is barely static, see.”[226] Immortalized within the 1970 documentary movie, Woodstock, Hendrix’s model turned a part of the sixties zeitgeist.[227] Pop critic Al Aronowitz of the New York Publish wrote: “It was probably the most electrifying second of Woodstock, and it was in all probability the only biggest second of the sixties.”[226] Photographs of the efficiency exhibiting Hendrix carrying a blue-beaded white leather-based jacket with fringe, a crimson head-scarf, and blue denims are considered iconic photos that seize a defining second of the period.[228][nb 31] He performed “Hey Joe” throughout the encore, concluding the three

12-day pageant. Upon leaving the stage, he collapsed from exhaustion.[227][nb 32] In 2011, the editors of Guitar World named his efficiency of “The Star-Spangled Banner” the best efficiency of all time.[231]

Band of Gypsys

A authorized dispute arose in 1966 concerning a file contract that Hendrix had entered into the earlier 12 months with producer Ed Chalpin.[232] After two years of litigation, the events agreed to a decision that granted Chalpin the distribution rights to an album of unique Hendrix materials. Hendrix determined that they might file the LP, Band of Gypsys, throughout two stay appearances.[233] In preparation for the reveals he shaped an all-black energy trio with Cox and drummer Buddy Miles, previously with Wilson Pickett, the Electrical Flag, and the Buddy Miles Categorical.[234] Critic John Rockwell described Hendrix and Miles as jazz-rock fusionists, and their collaboration as pioneering.[235] Others recognized a funk and soul affect of their music.[236] Live performance promoter Invoice Graham referred to as the reveals “probably the most good, emotional show of virtuoso electrical guitar” that he had ever heard.[237] Biographers have speculated that Hendrix shaped the band in an effort to appease members of the Black Energy motion and others within the black communities who referred to as for him to make use of his fame to talk up for civil rights.[238]

Hendrix had been recording with Cox since April and jamming with Miles since September, and the trio wrote and rehearsed materials which they carried out at a sequence of 4 reveals over two nights on December 31 and January 1, on the Fillmore East. They used recordings of those concert events to assemble the LP, which was produced by Hendrix.[239] The album contains the observe “Machine Gun”, which musicologist Andy Aledort described as the top of Hendrix’s profession, and “the premiere instance of [his] unparalleled genius as a rock guitarist … On this efficiency, Jimi transcended the medium of rock music, and set a wholly new commonplace for the potential of electrical guitar.”[240] In the course of the track’s prolonged instrumental breaks, Hendrix created sounds along with his guitar that sonically represented warfare, together with rockets, bombs, and diving planes.[241]

The Band of Gypsys album was the one official stay Hendrix LP made commercially out there throughout his lifetime; a number of tracks from the Woodstock and Monterey reveals have been launched later that 12 months.[242] The album was launched in April 1970 by Capitol Information; it reached the highest ten in each the US and the UK.[237] That very same month a single was issued with “Stepping Stone” because the A-side and “Izabella” because the B-side, however Hendrix was dissatisfied with the standard of the mastering and he demanded that it’s withdrawn and re-mixed, stopping the songs from charting and leading to Hendrix’s least profitable single; it was additionally his final.[243]

On January 28, 1970, a 3rd and ultimate Band of Gypsys look occurred; they carried out throughout a music pageant at Madison Sq. Backyard benefiting the anti-Vietnam Struggle Moratorium Committee titled the “Winter Competition for Peace”.[244] American blues guitarist Johnny Winter was backstage earlier than the live performance; he recalled: “[Hendrix] got here in along with his head down, sat on the sofa alone, and put his head in his fingers … He did not transfer till it was time for the present.”[245] Minutes after taking the stage he snapped a vulgar response at a lady who had shouted a request for “Cunning Girl”. He then started taking part in “Earth Blues” earlier than telling the viewers: “That is what occurs when earth fucks with area”.[245] Moments later, he briefly sat down on the drum riser earlier than leaving the stage.[246] Each Miles and Redding later said that Jeffery had given Hendrix LSD earlier than the efficiency.[247] Miles believed that Jeffery gave Hendrix the medication in an effort to sabotage the present band and produce concerning the return of the unique Expertise lineup.[246] Jeffery fired Miles after the present and Cox stop, ending the Band of Gypsys.[248]

Cry of Love Tour

Quickly after the abruptly ended Band of Gypsys efficiency and their subsequent dissolution, Jeffery made preparations to reunite the unique Expertise lineup.[249] Though Hendrix, Mitchell, and Redding have been interviewed by Rolling Stone in February 1970 as a united group, Hendrix by no means supposed to work with Redding.[250] When Redding returned to New York in anticipation of rehearsals with a re-formed Expertise, he was instructed that he had been changed with Cox.[251] Throughout an interview with Rolling Stone‘s Keith Altham, Hendrix defended the choice: “It is nothing private towards Noel, however we completed what we have been doing with the Expertise and Billy’s model of taking part in fits the brand new group higher.”[249] Though an official identify was by no means adopted for the lineup of Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox, promoters typically billed them because the Jimi Hendrix Expertise or simply Jimi Hendrix.[252]

In the course of the first half of 1970, Hendrix sporadically labored on materials for what would have been his subsequent LP.[243] Most of the tracks have been posthumously launched in 1971 as The Cry of Love.[253] He had began writing songs for the album in 1968, however in April 1970 he instructed Keith Altham that the challenge had been deserted.[243] Quickly afterward, he and his band took a break from recording and commenced the Cry of Love tour on the L.A. Discussion board, performing for 20,000 individuals.[254] Set-lists throughout the tour included quite a few Expertise tracks in addition to a choice of newer materials.[254] A number of reveals have been recorded, they usually produced a few of Hendrix’s most memorable stay performances. At certainly one of them, the second Atlanta Worldwide Pop Competition, on July 4, he performed to the biggest American viewers of his profession.[255] In response to authors Scott Schinder and Andy Schwartz, as many as 500,000 individuals attended the live performance.[255] On July 17, they appeared on the New York Pop Competition; Hendrix had once more consumed too many medication earlier than the present, and the set was thought-about a catastrophe.[256] The American leg of the tour, which included 32 performances, resulted in Honolulu, Hawaii, on August 1, 1970.[257] This could be Hendrix’s ultimate live performance look within the US.[258]

Electrical Girl Studios

In 1968, Hendrix and Jeffery collectively invested within the buy of the Era Membership in Greenwich Village.[201] That they had initially deliberate to reopen the institution, however when an audit of Hendrix’s bills revealed that he had incurred exorbitant charges by block-booking recording studios for prolonged periods at peak charges they determined to transform the constructing [259] right into a studio of his personal. Hendrix may then work as a lot as he needed whereas additionally decreasing his recording expenditures, which had reached a reported $300,000 yearly.[260] Architect and acoustician John Storyk designed Electrical Girl Studios for Hendrix, who requested that they keep away from proper angles the place doable. With spherical home windows, an ambient lighting machine, and a psychedelic mural, Storyk needed the studio to have a calming atmosphere that may encourage Hendrix’s creativity.[260] The challenge took twice so long as deliberate and value twice as a lot as Hendrix and Jeffery had budgeted, with their complete funding estimated at $1 million.[261][nb 33]

Hendrix first used Electrical Girl on June 15, 1970, when he jammed with Steve Winwood and Chris Wooden of Site visitors; the subsequent day, he recorded his first observe there, “Evening Chook Flying”.[262] The studio formally opened for enterprise on August 25, and a grand opening occasion was held the next day.[262] Instantly afterwards, Hendrix left for England; he by no means returned to the States.[263] He boarded an Air India flight for London with Cox, becoming a member of Mitchell for a efficiency because the headlining act of the Isle of Wight Competition.[264]

European tour

When the European leg of the Cry of Love tour started, Hendrix was eager for his new studio and inventive outlet, and was not keen to meet the dedication. On September 2, 1970, he deserted a efficiency in Aarhus after three songs, stating: “I have been useless a very long time”.[265] 4 days later, he gave his ultimate live performance look, on the Isle of Fehmarn Competition in Germany.[266] He was met with booing and jeering from followers in response to his cancellation of a present slated for the tip of the earlier night time’s invoice as a result of torrential rain and threat of electrocution.[267][nb 34] Instantly following the pageant, Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox traveled to London.[269]

Three days after the efficiency, Cox, who was affected by extreme paranoia after both taking LSD or being given it unknowingly, stop the tour and went to stick with his mother and father in Pennsylvania.[270] Inside days of Hendrix’s arrival in England, he had spoken with Chas Chandler, Alan Douglas, and others about leaving his supervisor, Michael Jeffery.[271] On September 16, Hendrix carried out in public for the final time throughout an off-the-cuff jam at Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Membership in Soho with Eric Burdon and his newest band, Struggle.[272] They started by taking part in a number of of their current hits, and after a quick intermission Hendrix joined them throughout “Mom Earth” and “Tobacco Highway”. His efficiency was uncharacteristically subdued; he quietly performed backing guitar, and shunned the histrionics that individuals had come to count on from him.[273] He died lower than 48 hours later.[274]

Medication and alcohol

Hendrix entered a small membership in Clarksville, Tennessee, in July 1962, drawn in by stay music. He stopped for a drink and ended up spending many of the $400 that he had saved throughout his time within the Military. “I went on this jazz joint and had a drink,” he defined. “I appreciated it and I stayed. Individuals inform me I get silly, good-natured typically. Anyway, I suppose I felt actual benevolent that day. I will need to have been handing out payments to anybody that requested me. I got here out of that place with sixteen {dollars} left.”[275] Alcohol ultimately turned “the scourge of his existence, driving him to matches of pique, even uncommon bursts of atypical, bodily violence”.[276]

Like most acid-heads, Jimi had visions and he needed to create music to specific what he noticed. He would attempt to clarify this to individuals, however it did not make sense as a result of it was not linked to actuality in any method.

— Kathy Etchingham[277]

Roby and Schreiber assert that Hendrix first used LSD when he met Linda Keith in late 1966. Shapiro and Glebbeek, nonetheless, assert that Hendrix used it in June 1967 on the earliest whereas attending the Monterey Pop Competition.[278] In response to Hendrix biographer Charles Cross, the topic of medication got here up one night in 1966 at Keith’s New York condo. One in every of Keith’s pals provided Hendrix acid, a road identify for LSD, however Hendrix requested for LSD as an alternative, exhibiting what Cross describes as “his naivete and his full inexperience with psychedelics”.[279] Earlier than that, Hendrix had solely sporadically used medication, together with hashish, cannabis, amphetamines, and infrequently cocaine.[279] After 1967, he usually used hashish, cannabis, LSD, and amphetamines, notably whereas touring.[280] In response to Cross, “few stars have been as intently related to the drug tradition as Jimi”.[281]

Drug abuse and violence

When Hendrix drank to extra or blended medication with alcohol, typically he turned indignant and violent.[282] His good friend Herbie Worthington stated Hendrix “merely was a bastard” when he drank.[283] In response to good friend Sharon Lawrence, liquor “set off a bottled-up anger, a damaging fury he virtually by no means displayed in any other case”.[284]

In January 1968, the Expertise travelled to Sweden to begin a one-week tour of Europe. In the course of the early morning hours of the primary day, Hendrix acquired right into a drunken brawl within the Lodge Opalen in Gothenburg, smashing a plate-glass window and injuring his proper hand, for which he acquired medical remedy.[283] The incident culminated in his arrest and launch, pending a courtroom look that resulted in a big high-quality.[285]

In 1969, Hendrix rented a home in Benedict Canyon, California, that was burglarized. Later, whereas underneath the affect of medication and alcohol, he accused his good friend Paul Caruso of the theft, threw punches and stones at him, and chased him away from his home.[286] Just a few days later Hendrix hit his girlfriend, Carmen Borrero, above her eye with a vodka bottle throughout a drunken, jealous rage, and gave her a minimize that necessitated stitches.[283]

Canadian drug expenses and trial

Hendrix was passing by way of customs at Toronto Worldwide Airport on Might 3, 1969, when authorities discovered a small quantity of heroin and cannabis in his baggage, and charged him with drug possession.[287] He was launched on $10,000 bail, and was required to return on Might 5 for an arraignment listening to.[288] The incident proved aggravating for Hendrix, and it weighed closely on his thoughts throughout the seven months main as much as his December 1969 trial.[287] For the Crown to show possession, they needed to present that Hendrix knew that the medication have been there.[289] In the course of the jury trial, he testified {that a} fan had given him a vial of what he thought was authorized treatment which he put in his bag.[290] He was acquitted of the costs.[291] Mitchell and Redding later revealed that everybody had been warned a few deliberate drug bust the day earlier than flying to Toronto; each males additionally said that they believed that the medication had been planted in Hendrix’s bag with out his data.[292]

Demise, autopsy, and burial

A color photograph of a white, multi-story building.

The Samarkand Lodge, the place Hendrix spent his ultimate hours

Particulars are disputed regarding Hendrix’s final day and demise. He spent a lot of September 17, 1970, with Monika Dannemann in London, the one witness to his ultimate hours.[293][294] Dannemann stated that she ready a meal for them at her condo within the Samarkand Lodge round 11 p.m., after they shared a bottle of wine.[295] She drove him to the residence of an acquaintance at roughly 1:45 a.m., the place he remained for about an hour earlier than she picked him up and drove them again to her flat at 3 a.m.[296] She stated that they talked till round 7 a.m., after they went to sleep. Dannemann awoke round 11 a.m. and located Hendrix respiratory however unconscious and unresponsive. She referred to as for an ambulance at 11:18 a.m., and it arrived 9 minutes later.[297] Paramedics transported Hendrix to St Mary Abbot’s Hospital the place Dr. John Bannister pronounced him useless at 12:45 p.m. on September 18.[298][299][300]

Coroner Gavin Thurston ordered a autopsy examination which was carried out on September 21 by Professor Robert Donald Teare, a forensic pathologist.[301] Thurston accomplished the inquest on September 28 and concluded that Hendrix aspirated his personal vomit and died of asphyxia whereas intoxicated with barbiturates.[302] Citing “inadequate proof of the circumstances”, he declared an open verdict.[303] Dannemann later revealed that Hendrix had taken 9 of her prescribed Vesparax sleeping tablets, 18 instances the really helpful dosage.[304]

Desmond Henley embalmed Hendrix’s physique[305] which was flown to Seattle on September 29.[306] Hendrix’s household and pals held a service at Dunlap Baptist Church in Seattle’s Rainier Valley on Thursday, October 1; his physique was interred at Greenwood Cemetery in close by Renton,[307] the situation of his mom’s grave.[308] Household and pals traveled in 24 limousines, and greater than 200 individuals attended the funeral, together with Mitch Mitchell, Noel Redding, Miles Davis, John Hammond, and Johnny Winter.[309][310]

Hendrix is commonly cited as one instance of an allegedly disproportionate variety of musicians dying at age 27, a phenomenon known as the 27 Membership.

Unauthorized and posthumous releases

By 1967, as Hendrix was gaining in recognition, a lot of his pre-Expertise recordings have been marketed to an unsuspecting public as Jimi Hendrix albums, typically with deceptive later photos of Hendrix.[311] The recordings, which got here underneath the management of producer Ed Chalpin of PPX, with whom Hendrix had signed a recording contract in 1965, have been typically re-mixed between their repeated reissues, and licensed to file firms reminiscent of Decca and Capitol.[312][313] Hendrix publicly denounced the releases, describing them as “malicious” and “significantly inferior”, stating: “At PPX, we spent on common about one hour recording a track. In the present day I spend a minimum of twelve hours on every track.”[314] These unauthorized releases have lengthy constituted a considerable a part of his recording catalogue, amounting to lots of of albums.[315]

A few of Hendrix’s unfinished fourth studio album was launched because the 1971 title The Cry of Love.[253] Though the album reached quantity three within the US and quantity two within the UK, producers Mitchell and Kramer later complained that they have been unable to utilize all of the out there songs as a result of some tracks have been used for 1971’s Rainbow Bridge; nonetheless others have been issued on 1972’s Struggle Heroes.[316] Materials from The Cry of Love was re-released in 1997 as First Rays of the New Rising Solar, together with the opposite tracks that Mitchell and Kramer had needed to incorporate.[317][nb 35] 4 years after Hendrix’s demise, producer Alan Douglas acquired the rights to provide unreleased music by Hendrix; he attracted criticism for utilizing studio musicians to exchange or add tracks.[319]

In 1993, MCA Information delayed a multimillion-dollar sale of Hendrix’s publishing copyrights as a result of Al Hendrix was sad concerning the association.[320] He acknowledged that he had bought distribution rights to a international company in 1974, however said that it didn’t embody copyrights and argued that he had retained veto energy of the sale of {the catalogue}.[320] Underneath a settlement reached in July 1995, Al Hendrix regained management of his son’s track and picture rights.[321] He subsequently licensed the recordings to MCA by way of the family-run firm Expertise Hendrix LLC, shaped in 1995.[322] In August 2009, Expertise Hendrix introduced that it had entered a brand new licensing settlement with Sony Music Leisure’s Legacy Recordings division, to take impact in 2010.[323] Legacy and Expertise Hendrix launched the 2010 Jimi Hendrix Catalog Challenge beginning with the discharge of Valleys of Neptune in March of that 12 months.[324] Within the months earlier than his demise, Hendrix recorded demos for an idea album tentatively titled Black Gold, now within the possession of Expertise Hendrix LLC, however it has not been launched.[325][nb 36]



A color photograph of a white Fender Stratocaster guitar
The Fender Stratocaster Hendrix performed at Woodstock
A color photograph of a black Gibson Flying V guitar
Hendrix’s Gibson Flying V

Hendrix performed quite a lot of guitars, however was most related to the Fender Stratocaster.[327] He acquired his first in 1966, when a girlfriend loaned him sufficient cash to buy a used Stratocaster constructed round 1964.[328] He used it typically throughout performances and recordings.[329] In 1967, he described the Stratocaster as “the very best all-around guitar for the stuff we’re doing”; he praised its “shiny treble and deep bass”.[330]

Hendrix primarily performed right-handed guitars that have been turned the other way up and restrung for left-hand taking part in.[331] Due to the slant of the Stratocaster’s bridge pickup, his lowest string had a brighter sound, whereas his highest string had a darker sound, the other of the supposed design.[332] Hendrix additionally used Fender Jazzmasters, Duosonics, two totally different Gibson Flying Vs, a Gibson Les Paul, three Gibson SGs, a Gretsch Corvette, and a Fender Jaguar.[333] He used a white Gibson SG Customized for his performances on The Dick Cavett Present in September 1969, and a black Gibson Flying V throughout the Isle of Wight pageant in 1970.[334][nb 37]


Throughout 1965, and 1966, whereas Hendrix was taking part in back-up for soul and R&B acts within the US, he used an 85-watt Fender Twin Reverb amplifier.[336] When Chandler introduced Hendrix to England in October 1966, he equipped him with 30-watt Burns amps, which Hendrix thought have been too small for his wants.[337][nb 38] After an early London gig when he was unable to make use of his Fender Twin, he requested concerning the Marshall amps he had observed different teams utilizing.[337] Years earlier, Mitch Mitchell had taken drum classes from Marshall founder Jim Marshall, and he launched Hendrix to Marshall.[338] At their preliminary assembly, Hendrix purchased 4 speaker cupboards and three 100-watt Tremendous Lead amplifiers; he grew accustomed to utilizing all three in unison.[337] The tools arrived on October 11, 1966, and the Expertise used it throughout their first tour.[337]

Marshall amps have been vital to the event of Hendrix’s overdriven sound and his use of suggestions, creating what writer Paul Trynka described as a “definitive vocabulary for rock guitar”.[339] Hendrix often turned all of the management knobs to the utmost stage, which turned generally known as the Hendrix setting.[340] In the course of the 4 years previous to his demise, he bought between 50 and 100 Marshall amplifiers.[341] Jim Marshall stated Hendrix was “the best ambassador” his firm ever had.[342]


A color image of a 1968 King Vox Wah pedal. The foot pedal is black with chrome accents and has a"King Vox Wah" label on the top.

A 1968 King Vox-Wah wah-wah pedal much like the one owned by Hendrix[343]

One in every of Hendrix’s signature results was the wah-wah pedal, which he first heard used with an electrical guitar in Cream’s “Tales of Courageous Ulysses”, launched in Might 1967.[344] That July, whereas performing on the Scene membership in New York Metropolis, Hendrix met Frank Zappa, whose band the Moms of Invention have been performing on the adjoining Garrick Theater. Hendrix was fascinated by Zappa’s utility of the pedal, and he experimented with one later that night.[345][nb 39] He used a wah pedal throughout the opening to “Voodoo Baby (Slight Return)”, creating one of many best-known wah-wah riffs of the traditional rock period.[347] He additionally makes use of the impact on “Up from the Skies”, “Little Miss Lover”, and “Nonetheless Raining, Nonetheless Dreaming”.[346]

Hendrix used a Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face and a Vox wah pedal throughout recording periods and performances, but additionally experimented with different guitar results.[348] He loved a fruitful long-term collaboration with electronics fanatic Roger Mayer, whom he as soon as referred to as “the key” of his sound.[349] Mayer launched him to the Octavia, an octave-doubling impact pedal, in December 1966, and he first recorded with it throughout the guitar solo to “Purple Haze”.[350]

Hendrix additionally used the Uni-Vibe, designed to simulate the modulation results of a rotating Leslie speaker. He makes use of the impact throughout his efficiency at Woodstock and on the Band of Gypsys observe “Machine Gun”, which prominently options the Uni-vibe together with an Octavia and a Fuzz Face.[351] For performances, he plugged his guitar into the wah-wah, which was related to the Fuzz Face, then the Uni-Vibe, and eventually a Marshall amplifier.[352]


As an adolescent within the Fifties, Hendrix turned fascinated by rock and roll artists reminiscent of Elvis Presley, Little Richard, and Chuck Berry.[353] In 1968, he instructed Guitar Participant journal that electrical blues artists Muddy Waters, Elmore James, and B.B. King impressed him throughout the starting of his profession; he additionally cited Eddie Cochran as an early affect.[354] Of Muddy Waters, the primary electrical guitarist of which Hendrix turned conscious, he stated: “I heard certainly one of his information once I was a bit of boy and it scared me to demise as a result of I heard all of those sounds.”[355] In 1970, he instructed Rolling Stone that he was a fan of western swing artist Bob Wills and whereas he lived in Nashville, the tv present the Grand Ole Opry.[356]

I do not occur to know a lot about jazz. I do know that the majority of these cats are taking part in nothing however blues, although—I do know that a lot.

— Hendrix on jazz music[357]

Cox said that in their time serving within the US navy, he and Hendrix primarily listened to southern blues artists reminiscent of Jimmy Reed and Albert King. In response to Cox, “King was a really, very highly effective affect”.[354] Howlin’ Wolf additionally impressed Hendrix, who carried out Wolf’s “Killing Ground” because the opening track of his US debut on the Monterey Pop Competition.[358] The affect of soul artist Curtis Mayfield may be heard in Hendrix’s guitar taking part in, and the affect of Bob Dylan may be heard in Hendrix’s songwriting; he was recognized to play Dylan’s information repeatedly, notably Freeway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde.[359]


He modified every thing. What do not we owe Jimi Hendrix? For his monumental rebooting of guitar tradition “requirements of tone”, approach, gear, sign processing, rhythm taking part in, soloing, stage presence, chord voicings, charisma, vogue, and composition? … He’s guitar hero primary.

Guitar Participant journal, Might 2012[360]

The Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame biography for the Expertise states: “Jimi Hendrix was arguably the best instrumentalist within the historical past of rock music. Hendrix expanded the vary and vocabulary of the electrical guitar into areas no musician had ever ventured earlier than. His boundless drive, technical means and inventive utility of such results as wah-wah and distortion without end remodeled the sound of rock and roll.”[1] Musicologist Andy Aledort described Hendrix as “one of the vital inventive” and “influential musicians that has ever lived”.[361] Music journalist Chuck Philips wrote: “In a area virtually completely populated by white musicians, Hendrix has served as a job mannequin for a cadre of younger black rockers. His achievement was to reclaim title to a musical kind pioneered by black innovators like Little Richard and Chuck Berry within the Fifties.”[362]

Hendrix favored overdriven amplifiers with excessive quantity and achieve.[126] He was instrumental in creating the beforehand undesirable strategy of guitar amplifier suggestions, and helped to popularize use of the wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock.[363] He rejected the usual barre chord fretting approach utilized by most guitarists in favor of fretting the low sixth string root notes along with his thumb.[364] He utilized this method throughout the starting bars of “Little Wing”, which allowed him to maintain the foundation be aware of chords whereas additionally taking part in melody. This technique has been described as piano model, with the thumb taking part in what a pianist’s left hand would play and the opposite fingers taking part in melody without any consideration hand.[365] Having spent a number of years fronting a trio, he developed a capability to play rhythm chords and lead strains collectively, giving the audio impression that a couple of guitarist was performing.[366][nb 40] He was the primary artist to include stereophonic phasing results in rock music recordings.[369] Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone wrote: “Hendrix pioneered using the instrument as an digital sound supply. Gamers earlier than him had experimented with suggestions and distortion, however Hendrix turned these results and others right into a managed, fluid vocabulary each bit as private because the blues with which he started.”[3][nb 41]

Whereas creating his distinctive musical voice and guitar model, Hendrix synthesized numerous genres, together with blues, R&B, soul, British rock, American people music, Fifties rock and roll, and jazz.[371] Musicologist David Moskowitz emphasised the significance of blues music in Hendrix’s taking part in model, and based on authors Steven Roby and Brad Schreiber, “[He] explored the outer reaches of psychedelic rock”.[372] His affect is obvious in quite a lot of widespread music codecs, and he has contributed considerably to the event of onerous rock, heavy metallic, funk, post-punk, grunge,[373] and hip hop music.[374] His lasting affect on fashionable guitar gamers is troublesome to overstate; his strategies and supply have been abundantly imitated by others.[375] Regardless of his hectic touring schedule and infamous perfectionism, he was a prolific recording artist who left behind quite a few unreleased recordings.[376] Greater than 40 years after his demise, Hendrix stays as widespread as ever, with annual album gross sales exceeding that of any 12 months throughout his lifetime.[377]

As along with his up to date Sly Stone, Hendrix embraced the experimentalism of white musicians in progressive rock within the late Sixties and impressed a wave of progressive soul musicians that emerged by the subsequent decade.[378] He has instantly influenced quite a few funk and funk rock artists, together with Prince, George Clinton, John Frusciante of the Pink Scorching Chili Peppers, Eddie Hazel of Funkadelic, and Ernie Isley of the Isley Brothers.[379] Hendrix influenced post-punk guitarists reminiscent of John McGeoch and Robert Smith.[380] Grunge guitarists reminiscent of Jerry Cantrell of Alice in Chains,[381] and Mike McCready and Stone Gossard of Pearl Jam have cited Hendrix as an affect.[373] Hendrix’s affect additionally extends to many hip hop artists, together with De La Soul, A Tribe Referred to as Quest, Digital Underground, Beastie Boys, and Run–D.M.C.[382] Miles Davis was deeply impressed by Hendrix, and he in contrast Hendrix’s improvisational talents with these of saxophonist John Coltrane.[383][nb 42] Hendrix additionally influenced Black Sabbath,[385] industrial artist Marilyn Manson,[386] blues legend Stevie Ray Vaughan,
Randy Hansen,[387]Uli Jon Roth,[388] pop singer Halsey,[389] Kiss’s Ace Frehley,[390] Metallica‘s Kirk Hammett, Aerosmith’s Brad Whitford,[391] Judas Priest’s Richie Faulkner,[392] instrumental rock guitarist Joe Satriani, King’s X singer/bassist Doug Pinnick,[393] Frank Zappa/David Bowie/Speaking Heads/King Crimson/9 Inch Nails employed gun Adrian Belew,[394] and heavy metallic virtuoso Yngwie Malmsteen, who stated: “[Hendrix] created fashionable electrical taking part in, with out query … He was the primary. He began all of it. The remainder is historical past.”[395] “For a lot of”, Hendrix was “the preeminent black rocker”, based on Jon Caramanica.[396] Members of the Soulquarians, an experimental black music collective energetic throughout the late Nineties and early 2000s, have been influenced by the inventive freedom in Hendrix’s music and extensively used Electrical Girl Studios to work on their very own music.[397]

Recognition and awards

A color photograph of a bronze statue of a man holding an electric guitar.

Hendrix statue exterior Dimbola Lodge, Isle of Wight

Hendrix acquired a number of prestigious rock music awards throughout his lifetime and posthumously. In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Yr.[398] In 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Yr.[398] Additionally in 1968, the Metropolis of Seattle gave him the keys to town.[399] Disc & Music Echo newspaper honored him with the World Prime Musician of 1969 and in 1970 Guitar Participant journal named him the Rock Guitarist of the Yr.[400]

Rolling Stone ranked his three non-posthumous studio albums, Are You Skilled (1967), Axis: Daring as Love (1967), and Electrical Ladyland (1968) among the many 500 Best Albums of All Time.[401] They ranked Hendrix primary on their listing of the 100 biggest guitarists of all time, and quantity six on their listing of the 100 biggest artists of all time.[402] Guitar World’s readers voted six of Hendrix’s solos among the many prime 100 Best Guitar Solos of All Time: “Purple Haze” (70), “The Star-Spangled Banner” (52; from Stay at Woodstock), “Machine Gun” (32; from Band of Gypsys), “Little Wing” (18), “Voodoo Baby (Slight Return)” (11), and “All Alongside the Watchtower” (5).[403] Rolling Stone positioned seven of his recordings of their listing of the five hundred Best Songs of All Time: “Purple Haze” (17), “All Alongside the Watchtower” (47) “Voodoo Baby (Slight Return)” (102), “Cunning Girl” (153), “Hey Joe” (201), “Little Wing” (366), and “The Wind Cries Mary” (379).[404] Additionally they included three of Hendrix’s songs of their listing of the 100 Best Guitar Songs of All Time: “Purple Haze” (2), “Voodoo Baby” (12), and “Machine Gun” (49).[405]

A star on the Hollywood Stroll of Fame was devoted to Hendrix on November 14, 1991, at 6627 Hollywood Boulevard.[406] The Jimi Hendrix Expertise was inducted into the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame in 1992, and the UK Music Corridor of Fame in 2005.[1][407] In 1998, Hendrix was inducted into the Native American Music Corridor of Fame throughout its first 12 months.[408][nb 43] In 1999, readers of Rolling Stone and Guitar World ranked Hendrix among the many most vital musicians of the twentieth century.[410] In 2005, his debut album, Are You Skilled, was certainly one of 50 recordings added that 12 months to the U.S. Nationwide Recording Registry within the Library of Congress, “[to] be preserved all the time … [as] a part of the nation’s audio legacy”.[411] In Seattle, November 27, 1992, which might have been Hendrix’s fiftieth birthday, was made Jimi Hendrix Day, largely because of the efforts of his boyhood good friend, guitarist Sammy Drain.[412][413]

The blue plaque figuring out Hendrix’s former residence at 23 Brook Road, London, (subsequent door to the previous residence of George Frideric Handel) was the primary issued by English Heritage to commemorate a pop star.[414] A memorial statue of Hendrix taking part in a Stratocaster stands close to the nook of Broadway and Pine Streets in Seattle. In Might 2006, town renamed a park close to its Central District Jimi Hendrix Park, in his honor.[415] In 2012, an official historic marker was erected on the positioning of the July 1970 Second Atlanta Worldwide Pop Competition close to Byron, Georgia. The marker textual content reads, partly: “Over thirty musical acts carried out, together with rock icon Jimi Hendrix taking part in to the biggest American viewers of his profession.”[416]

Hendrix’s music has acquired plenty of Corridor of Fame Grammy awards, beginning with a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992, adopted by two Grammys in 1999 for his albums Are You Skilled and Electrical Ladyland; Axis: Daring as Love acquired a Grammy in 2006.[417][418] In 2000, he acquired a Corridor of Fame Grammy award for his unique composition, “Purple Haze”, and in 2001, for his recording of Dylan’s “All Alongside the Watchtower”. Hendrix’s rendition of “The Star-Spangled Banner” was honored with a Grammy in 2009.[417]

The USA Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honoring Hendrix in 2014.[419] On August 21, 2016, Hendrix was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Corridor of Fame in Dearborn, Michigan.[420] The James Marshall “Jimi” Hendrix United States Publish Workplace in Renton Highlands close to Seattle, a few mile from Hendrix’s grave and memorial, was renamed for Hendrix in 2019.[421]

On June 23, 2019, the Band of Gypsys have been inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Corridor of Fame, on the Charles H. Wright Museum of African-American Historical past in Detroit, Michigan. Billy Cox, the final surviving member of the group was readily available to just accept, together with representatives of the Buddy Miles and Hendrix estates.[422]


The Jimi Hendrix Expertise

  • Are You Skilled (1967)
  • Axis: Daring as Love (1967)
  • Electrical Ladyland (1968)

Jimi Hendrix/Band of Gypsys

  • Band of Gypsys (1970)

See additionally

  • The Electrical Girl Studio Guitar, a sculpture made in honour of Hendrix.



  • Aledort, Andy (1998). Jimi Hendrix: Band of Gypsys. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-9432-0.
  • Aledort, Andy (1996). Jimi Hendrix: A Step-by-Step Breakdown of his Guitar Types and Methods. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-3659-7.
  • Aledort, Andy (1995). Tolinski, Brad (ed.). “Jimi Hendrix Lesson: Message to Love”. Guitar College. 7 (3).
  • Aledort, Andy (1991). Pollock, Bruce; Stix, John (eds.). “Efficiency notes: Jimi Hendrix, ‘All Alongside the Watchtower’“. Guitar Classics IV by Guitar: For the Training Musician.
  • Black, Johnny (1999). Jimi Hendrix: The Final Expertise. Thunder’s Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-240-5.
  • Brown, Tony (1992). Jimi Hendrix: A Visible Documentary – His Life, Loves and Music. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-2761-2.
  • Brown, Tony (1997). Jimi Hendrix: The Ultimate Days. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-5238-6.
  • Cannon, Sarita (2021). “Pink, Black, and Blue: Jimi Hendrix’s Musical Self-Expression”. Black-Native Autobiographical Acts: Navigating the Minefields of Authenticity. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1793630575.
  • Cross, Charles R. (2005). Room Stuffed with Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8841-2.
  • Davis, Miles; Troupe, Quincy (1989). Miles: The Autobiography. Picador. ISBN 978-0-330-31382-7.
  • Doggett, Peter (2004). Jimi Hendrix: The Full Information to his Music. Omnibus. ISBN 978-1-84449-424-8.
  • Fairchild, Michael (April 1991). “The Expertise of a Lifetime”. Guitar: For the Training Musician. 8 (6).
  • Gelfand, Dale Evva; Piccoli, Sean (2009). Jimi Hendrix: Musician. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0084-5.
  • George-Warren, Holly, ed. (2001). The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (2005 revised and up to date ed.). Fireplace. ISBN 978-0-7432-9201-6. Archived from the unique on November 20, 2019. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
  • GP workers (Might 2012). “Hendrix at 70”. Guitar Participant. Vol. 46, no. 5. Archived from the unique on September 25, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  • Inexperienced, Raleigh (2008). The Versatile Guitarist. Alfred Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7390-4805-4. Archived from the unique on February 14, 2017. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  • Gula, Bob (2008). Guitar Gods: The 25 Gamers Who Made Rock Historical past. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-35806-7. Archived from the unique on February 16, 2017. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  • Guitar World (December 2011). “Jimi Hendrix’s 100 Best Performances”. Guitar World. 32 (12).
  • Handyside, Christopher (2005). Soul and R&B. Heinemann-Raintree. ISBN 978-1-4034-8153-5.
  • Heatley, Michael (2009). Jimi Hendrix Gear: The Guitars, Amps & Results that Revolutionized Rock ‘n’ Roll. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-3639-7. Archived from the unique on June 24, 2016. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  • Hendrix, James A. (1999). My Son Jimi. AlJas Enterprises. ISBN 978-0-9667857-0-8.
  • Hendrix, Janie L.; McDermott, John (2007). Jimi Hendrix: An Illustrated Expertise. Atria. ISBN 978-0-7432-9769-1.
  • Hendrix, Leon; Mitchell, Adam (2012). Jimi Hendrix: A Brother’s Story. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-66881-5.
  • Inglis, Ian (2006). Efficiency and Widespread Music: Historical past, Place and Time. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-4056-1.
  • Larkin, Colin (1998). Virgin All-time Prime 1000 Albums. Virgin. ISBN 978-0-7535-0258-7.
  • Lawrence, Sharon (2005). Jimi Hendrix: The Intimate Story of a Betrayed Musical Legend. Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-056301-1.
  • Levy, Joe, ed. (2005). Rolling Stone’s 500 Best Albums of All Time (First Paperback ed.). Wenner Books. ISBN 978-1-932958-61-4.
  • Macdonald, Marie-Paule (2015). Jimi Hendrix: Soundscapes. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-542-4.
  • Martin, Joel W. (1996). “‘My Grandmother Was a Cherokee Princess’: Representations of Indians in Southern Historical past”. In Chook, S. Elizabeth (ed.). Dressing in Feathers: The Development of the Indian in Widespread Tradition. Routledge. ISBN 0-8133-2666-4.
  • Mayer, John (2011). “Jimi Hendrix”. In Brackett, Nathan (ed.). Rolling Stone: The 100 Best Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone.
  • McDermott, John (2009). Final Hendrix: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Stay Live shows and Periods. BackBeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-938-1.
  • McDermott, John (1992). Lewisohn, Mark (ed.). Hendrix: Setting the Document Straight. Grand Central. ISBN 978-0-446-39431-4.
  • Mitchell, Mitch; Platt, John (1990). Jimi Hendrix: Contained in the Expertise. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-10098-8.
  • Morello, Tom (December 8, 2011). Wenner, Jann (ed.). “Rolling Stone: The 100 Best Guitarists of All Time”. Rolling Stone. No. 1145. Archived from the unique on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  • Moskowitz, David (2010). The Phrases and Music of Jimi Hendrix. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-37592-7. Archived from the unique on April 30, 2016. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  • Murray, Charles Shaar (1989). Crosstown Site visitors: Jimi Hendrix and the Rock ‘n’ Roll Revolution (First US ed.). St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04288-2.
  • Owen, Frank; Reynolds, Simon (April 1991). “Hendrix Lives! Why Jimi nonetheless issues”. Spin. 7 (1).
  • Potash, Chris, ed. (1996). The Jimi Hendrix Companion. Omnibus. ISBN 978-0-7119-6635-2.
  • Redding, Noel; Appleby, Carol (1996). Are You Skilled?. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80681-0.
  • Roberts, David, ed. (2005). British Hit Singles & Albums (18 ed.). Guinness World Information Restricted. ISBN 978-1-904994-00-8.
  • Roby, Steven (2002). Black Gold: The Misplaced Archives of Jimi Hendrix. Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-7854-7.
  • Roby, Steven; Schreiber, Brad (2010). Turning into Jimi Hendrix: From Southern Crossroads to Psychedelic London, the Untold Story of a Musical Genius. Da Capo. ISBN 978-0-306-81910-0.
  • Roby, Steven (2012). Hendrix on Hendrix: Interviews and Encounters. Chicago Evaluation Press. ISBN 978-1-61374-324-9.
  • Rosen, Craig (1996). The Billboard E-book of Quantity One Albums. Billboard. ISBN 978-0-8230-7586-7.
  • Schinder, Scott; Schwartz, Andy (2007). Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Modified Music Eternally, Quantity 1. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33846-5.
  • Shadwick, Keith (2003). Jimi Hendrix: Musician. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-764-6. Archived from the unique on Might 5, 2016. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  • Shapiro, Harry; Glebbeek, Caesar (1995) [1990]. Jimi Hendrix: Electrical Gypsy (New and Improved ed.). St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-13062-6.
  • Stix, John (1992). “Jimi Hendrix/Stevie Ray Vaughan (chapter: Eddie Kramer: Off the Document)”. Guitar Presents (57).
  • Stubbs, David (2003). Voodoo Baby: Jimi Hendrix, the Tales Behind Each Tune. Thunder’s Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-537-6.
  • Trynka, Paul (1996). Rock {Hardware}. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-87930-428-7.
  • Unterberger, Richie (2009). The Tough Information to Jimi Hendrix. Tough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84836-002-0. Archived from the unique on August 25, 2016. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  • Wenner, Jann (2010) [2004]. 500 Best Songs of All Time. Rolling Stone. OCLC 641731526. Archived from the unique on June 22, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  • Wheelock, Richard M. (2012). “Native Individuals in American Mythology and Widespread Tradition”. In Hoffman, Elizabeth DeLaney (ed.). American Indians and Widespread Tradition, Quantity 1: Media, Sports activities, and Politics. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-37990-1.
  • Whitaker, Matthew C. (2011). Icons of Black America: Breaking Obstacles and Crossing Boundaries. Vol. 1. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-37642-9.
  • Whitburn, Joel (2010). The Billboard E-book of Prime 40 Hits, 1955–2009 (9 ed.). Billboard Books. ISBN 978-0-8230-8554-5.
  • Whitehill, Dave (1989a). Hendrix: Are You Skilled. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7119-3654-6.
  • Whitehill, Dave (1989b). Hendrix: Axis: Daring As Love. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-2391-7.
  • Whitehill, Dave (1989c). Hendrix: Electrical Ladyland. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-3385-5.
  • Wilkerson, Mark; Townshend, Pete (2006). Wonderful Journey: The Lifetime of Pete Townshend. Unhealthy Information Press. ISBN 978-1-4116-7700-5.
  • Wolfram, Walt; Reaser, Jeffrey (2014). Talkin’ Tar Heel: How Our Voices Inform the Story of North Carolina. College of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-4696-1436-6.

Additional studying

  • Barker, Steve (2012) [1967]. “Jimi Hendrix talks to Steve Barker”. In Roby, Steven (ed.). Hendrix on Hendrix: Interviews and Encounters with Jimi Hendrix. Chicago Evaluation Press. ISBN 978-1-61374-322-5.
  • di Perna, Alan (Winter 2002). Kitts, Jeff (ed.). “Jimi Stay!”. Guitar Legends. No. 57.
  • Etchingham, Kathy (1999). By Gypsy Eyes Hendrix. Firebird Distributing. ISBN 978-0-7528-2725-4.
  • Geldeart, Gary; Rodham, Rodham (2008). Jimi Hendrix from the Benjamin Franklin Studios. Jimpress. ISBN 978-0-9527686-7-8.
  • Halfin, Ross; Tolinski, Brad (2004). Traditional Hendrix. Genesis Publications. ISBN 978-0-904351-90-3.
  • Knight, Curtis (1974). Jimi: An Intimate Biography of Jimi Hendrix. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-19880-0.
  • Kruth, John (2000). Shiny Moments: The Life & Legacy of Rahsaan Roland Kirk. Welcome Rain Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56649-105-1.
  • Marshall, Wolf (1995). Marshall, Wolf (ed.). “Wild Factor”. Wolf Marshall’s Guitar One. 2.
  • van der Bliek, Rob (Might 2007). “The Hendrix chord: Blues, versatile pitch relationships, and self-standing concord” (PDF). Widespread Music. 26 (2): 343–64. doi:10.1017/S0261143007001304. hdl:10315/2886. JSTOR 4500321. S2CID 193243019.
  • Whitburn, Joel (1988). Joel Whitburn’s Prime R&B Singles, 1942–1988. Document Analysis, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89820-068-3.


  • Joe Boyd, John Head, Gary Weis (Administrators) (2005) [1973]. Jimi Hendrix (DVD). Warner House Video. ASIN B0009E3234.
  • Roger Pomphrey (Director) (2005). Traditional Albums – The Jimi Hendrix Expertise – Electrical Ladyland (DVD). Eagle Rock Leisure. ASIN B0007DBJP0.
  • Bob Smeaton (Director) (2013). Jimi Hendrix: Hear My Prepare A Comin’ (DVD, Blu-ray). Sony Legacy. ASIN B00F031WB8.
  • Bob Smeaton (Director) (2012). West Coast Seattle Boy: Jimi Hendrix: Voodoo Baby (DVD, Blu-ray). Sony Legacy. ASIN B007ZC92FA.

  • Official web site Edit this at Wikidata
  • Jimi Hendrix discography at Discogs Edit this at Wikidata
  • Jimi Hendrix Expertise discography at Discogs
  • Works by or about Jimi Hendrix in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Jimi Hendrix collected information and commentary at The Guardian
  • Jimi Hendrix collected information and commentary”. The New York Occasions.
  • Articles regarding disputes about rights to the Hendrix musical publishing property. Los Angeles Occasions
  • FBI Information: The Vault – James Marshall “Jimi” Hendrix at vault.fbi.gov

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