Led Zeppelin

Led Zeppelin is the debut album by English rock band Led Zeppelin. It was launched on 12 January 1969 in the US and on 31 March in the UK by Atlantic Information.

The album was recorded in September and October 1968 at Olympic Studios in London, shortly after the band’s formation. It accommodates a mixture of unique materials labored out within the first rehearsals, and remakes and rearrangements of latest blues and people songs. The classes occurred earlier than the group had secured a recording contract and totalled 36 hours; they have been paid for immediately by Jimmy Web page, the group’s founder, chief and guitarist, and Led Zeppelin’s supervisor Peter Grant and value £1,782 (equal to £29,986 in 2020) to finish. They have been produced by Web page, who as a musician was joined by band members Robert Plant (lead vocals, harmonica), John Paul Jones (bass, keyboards), and John Bonham (drums). Percussionist Viram Jasani seems as a visitor on one observe. The tracks have been blended by Web page’s childhood buddy Glyn Johns, and the enduring album cowl exhibiting the Hindenburg catastrophe was designed by George Hardie.

Led Zeppelin confirmed the group’s fusion of blues and rock, and their tackle the rising exhausting rock sound was instantly commercially profitable in each the UK and US, reaching the highest 10 on album charts in each international locations, in addition to a number of others, whereas it reached primary in Spain’s albums chart. Most of the songs have been longer and never effectively suited to be launched as singles for radio airplay; Web page was reluctant to launch “singles”, so solely “Good Occasions Unhealthy Occasions”, backed with “Communication Breakdown”, was launched exterior of the UK. Nevertheless, on account of publicity on album-oriented rock radio stations, and progress in reputation of the band, most of the album’s songs have grow to be traditional rock radio staples.


In July 1968, the English rock band the Yardbirds disbanded after two founder members Keith Relf and Jim McCarty give up the group, with a 3rd, Chris Dreja, leaving to grow to be a photographer shortly afterwards.[1] The fourth member, guitarist Jimmy Web page, was left with rights to the identify and contractual obligations for a sequence of concert events in Scandinavia. Web page requested seasoned session participant and arranger John Paul Jones to hitch as bassist, and hoped to recruit Terry Reid as singer and Procol Harum’s B. J. Wilson as drummer. Wilson was nonetheless dedicated to Procol Harum, and Reid declined to hitch however really helpful Robert Plant, who met with Web page at his boathouse in Pangbourne, Berkshire in August to speak about music and work on new materials.[1][2]

Web page and Plant realised that they had good musical chemistry collectively, and Plant requested buddy and former band-mate John Bonham to drum for the brand new group. The road-up of Web page, Plant, Jones and Bonham first rehearsed on 19 August 1968 (the day earlier than Plant’s twentieth birthday), shortly earlier than a tour of Scandinavia as “the New Yardbirds”, performing some previous Yardbirds materials in addition to new songs resembling “Communication Breakdown”, “I Cannot Stop You Child”, “You Shook Me”, “Babe I am Gonna Go away You” and “How Many Extra Occasions”.[3] After they returned to London following the tour, Web page modified the band’s identify to Led Zeppelin, and the group entered Olympic Studios at 11 p.m. on 25 September 1968 to document their debut album.[1][2]


Web page mentioned that the album took solely about 36 hours of studio time (over a span of some weeks) to create (together with mixing), including that he knew this due to the quantity charged on the studio invoice.[4] One of many main causes for the quick recording time was that the fabric chosen for the album had been well-rehearsed and pre-arranged by the band on the Scandinavian tour.[5][6]

The band had not but signed a deal, and there was no document firm cash to waste on extreme studio time. Web page and Led Zeppelin’s supervisor Peter Grant paid for the classes themselves.[5] The reported complete studio prices have been £1,782.[7] The self-funding was necessary as a result of it meant they may document precisely what they wished with out document firm interference.[8]

For the recordings Web page performed a psychedelically painted Fender Telecaster – a present from buddy Jeff Beck after Web page really helpful him to hitch the Yardbirds in 1965, changing Eric Clapton on lead guitar.[9][10][a] Web page performed the Telecaster via a Supro amplifier, and used a Gibson J-200 for the album’s acoustic tracks. For “Your Time Is Gonna Come” he used a Fender 10-string pedal metal guitar.[10][11]


Led Zeppelin was produced by Web page and engineered by Glyn Johns, who had recognized one another since they have been youngsters within the suburb of Epsom.[12] In accordance with Web page, many of the album was recorded stay, with overdubs added later.[13]

Web page used a “distance makes depth” strategy to manufacturing. He used pure room atmosphere to reinforce the reverb and recording texture on the document, demonstrating the improvements in sound recording he had realized throughout his session days. On the time, most music producers positioned microphones immediately in entrance of the amplifiers and drums.[8] For Led Zeppelin, Web page developed the concept of putting a further microphone a ways from the amplifier (so far as 20 toes (6 m)) after which recording the steadiness between the 2. Web page turned one of many first producers to document a band’s “ambient sound”: the gap of a notice’s time-lag from one finish of the room to the opposite.[14][15]

Due to the stay recording, some songs had Plant’s vocals bleed onto different tracks. Web page later said that this was a pure product of Plant’s highly effective voice, however added the leakage “sounds intentional”.[14] On “You Shook Me”, Web page used the “reverse echo” approach. It includes listening to the echo earlier than the principle sound (as a substitute of after it), and is achieved by turning the tape over and recording the echo on a spare observe, then turning the tape again over once more to get the echo previous the sign.[14]

This was one of many first albums to be launched in stereo solely. Previous to this, albums had been launched in separate mono and stereo variations.[5]


The songs on Led Zeppelin got here from the primary group rehearsals, which have been then refined on the Scandinavian tour. The group have been accustomed to the fabric after they entered Olympic to start out recording, a cause the album was accomplished shortly. Plant participated in songwriting however was not given credit score due to unexpired contractual obligations to CBS Information.[16] He was retroactively given credit score on “Good Occasions, Unhealthy Occasions”,[17] “Your Time Is Gonna Come”,[18] “Communication Breakdown”,[19] “Babe I am Gonna Go away You”,[20] and “How Many Extra Occasions”.[21]

Aspect one

“Good Occasions Unhealthy Occasions” was a commercial-sounding observe that was thought of because the group’s debut single within the UK, and launched as such within the US. In addition to showcasing the entire band and their new heavy model, it featured a catchy refrain and a wide range of guitar overdubs.[22] Regardless of being a robust observe, it was seldom carried out stay by Led Zeppelin. One of many few events it was performed was the Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Live performance in 2007.[23]

“Babe I am Gonna Go away You” was a re-arrangement of a track composed by Anne Bredon within the Fifties. Web page had heard the track recorded by Joan Baez for her 1962 album Joan Baez in Live performance. It was one of many first numbers that he labored on with Plant when the 2 first met at Pangbourne in August 1968. Web page performed each the Gibson J-200 acoustic and Telecaster on the observe. Plant initially sang the track in a heavier model, much like different performances on the album, however was persuaded by Web page to re-record it to permit some gentle and shade on the observe.[24][23]

“You Shook Me” was a blues track with lyrics by Willie Dixon and fitted in with the British blues increase that was ongoing when the album was being recorded. Jones, Plant and Web page took solos on Hammond organ, harmonica and guitar respectively. Web page put backwards echo on the observe, which was then a novel manufacturing system, on the decision and response between the vocal and guitar in direction of the top. The track had been recorded by Jeff Beck for the album Fact (1968) and Beck subsequently mentioned he was sad about Led Zeppelin copying his association.[11]

“Dazed and Confused” was written and recorded by Jake Holmes in 1967. The unique album credited Web page as the only real composer; Holmes sued for copyright infringement in 2010 and an out-of-court settlement was reached the next 12 months. The Yardbirds carried out the track repeatedly in live performance throughout 1968, together with a number of radio and tv classes. Their association included a bit the place Web page performed the guitar with a violin bow, an thought steered by David McCallum Sr. whom Web page had met whereas doing classes. Web page additionally used the guitar solo for one of many final Yardbirds recordings, “Assume About It”. Led Zeppelin’s diversifications of “Dazed and Confused” used some completely different lyrics, whereas Jones and Bonham developed the association to accommodate their enjoying kinds.[11][25]

The track was an necessary a part of Led Zeppelin’s stay present all through their early profession, and have become a automobile for group improvisation, finally stretching in size to over 30 minutes. The improvisation would typically embody elements of one other track, together with the group’s “The Crunge” and “Walter’s Stroll” (launched in a while Homes of the Holy and Coda, respectively), Joni Mitchell’s “Woodstock” and Scott McKenzie’s “San Francisco (Be Positive to Put on Flowers in Your Hair)”. It was briefly dropped from the stay set in 1975 after Web page injured a finger, however was re-instated for the rest of the tour. The final full stay efficiency throughout Led Zeppelin’s primary profession was at Earl’s Courtroom in London later that 12 months, after which the violin bow part of the track’s guitar solo was performed as a standalone piece. It was revived as a whole track efficiency for the Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Live performance in 2007.[11][25]

Aspect two

“Your Time Is Gonna Come” opens with Jones enjoying an unaccompanied organ solo, main into the verse. Web page performs acoustic and pedal metal guitar. The observe has a crossfade into “Black Mountain Aspect”, an acoustic instrumental primarily based on Bert Jansch’s association of the normal people track “Black Water Aspect” and influenced by the people enjoying of Jansch and John Renbourn. The track was repeatedly carried out stay as a medley with the Yardbirds solo guitar quantity “White Summer season”.[11]

“Communication Breakdown” was constructed round a Web page guitar riff, and one of many first tunes the group labored on. They loved enjoying it stay, and consequently it was an everyday a part of their set. It was performed intermittently all through the group’s profession, usually as an encore.[26][27]

“I Cannot Stop You Child” was one other Willie Dixon-penned blues quantity. It was recorded stay within the studio, and organized in a slower and extra laid-back model in comparison with among the different materials on the album.[16]

“How Many Extra Occasions” was the group’s closing stay quantity of their early profession. The track was improvised round an previous Howlin’ Wolf quantity, “How Many Extra Years”, and a Web page guitar riff, which developed spontaneously right into a jam session. The observe features a bolero part much like Jeff Beck’s “Beck’s Bolero” (which was written by and featured Web page), and segues into “Rosie” and “The Hunter” which have been improvised throughout recording. Web page performed the guitar with the violin bow within the center part of the observe, much like “Dazed and Confused”.[16][28]

Unreleased materials

Two different songs from the Olympic classes, “Child Come On House” and “Sugar Mama”, have been left off the album. They have been launched on the 2015 reissue of the retrospective album Coda.[29]

Art work

The picture of the Hindenburg airship seconds after catching fireplace on 6 Might 1937 was used because the Led Zeppelin album cowl.

Led Zeppelins entrance cowl, which was chosen by Web page, encompasses a black-and-white picture of the burning Hindenburg airship, photographed by Sam Shere on 6 Might 1937, in the course of the Hindenburg catastrophe.[30] The picture refers back to the origin of the band’s identify itself: When Web page, Beck and The Who’s Keith Moon and John Entwistle have been discussing the concept of forming a bunch, Moon joked, “It could most likely go over like a lead balloon”, and Entwistle reportedly replied, “a lead zeppelin!”[15]

The again cowl encompasses a {photograph} of the band taken by Dreja. The whole design of the album’s sleeve was coordinated by George Hardie, with whom the band would proceed to collaborate for future sleeves.[5] Hardie himself additionally created the entrance cowl illustration, rendering the well-known unique black-and-white {photograph} in ink utilizing a Rapidograph technical pen and a mezzotint approach.[30]

Hardie recalled that he initially provided the band a design primarily based on an previous membership check in San Francisco – a multi-sequential picture of a zeppelin airship up within the clouds. Web page declined nevertheless it was retained as the brand for the again cowl of Led Zeppelin’s first two albums and quite a few early press commercials.[30] The primary UK urgent featured the band identify and the Atlantic emblem in turquoise. When it was switched to the orange print later that 12 months, the turquoise-printed sleeve turned a collector’s merchandise.[5]

The album cowl gained additional widespread consideration when, at a February 1970 gig in Copenhagen, the band have been billed as “the Nobs” as the results of a authorized risk from aristocrat Eva von Zeppelin (a relative of the creator of the Zeppelin plane). Von Zeppelin, upon seeing the brand of the Hindenburg crashing in flames, threatened authorized motion over the live performance happening.[31][32] In 2001, Greg Kot wrote in Rolling Stone that “The duvet of Led Zeppelin … reveals the Hindenburg airship, in all its phallic glory, happening in flames. The picture did a fairly good job of encapsulating the music inside: intercourse, disaster and issues blowing up.”[33]

Vital reception

The album was marketed in chosen music papers underneath the slogan “Led Zeppelin – the one technique to fly”.[5] It initially obtained poor evaluations. In a stinging evaluation, Rolling Stone journal asserted that the band provided “little that its twin, the Jeff Beck Group, did not say as effectively or higher three months in the past … to fill the void created by the demise of Cream, they must discover a producer, editor and a few materials worthy of their collective skills”, calling Web page a “restricted producer” and criticizing his writing expertise. It additionally known as Plant “as foppish as Rod Stewart, however nowhere close to so thrilling”.[34][35] Due to the dangerous press, Led Zeppelin averted speaking to them all through their profession. Finally, their fame as an excellent stay band recovered by word-of-mouth.[36]

Rock journalist Cameron Crowe famous years later: “It was a time of ‘super-groups’, of furiously hyped bands who may barely lower it, and Led Zeppelin initially discovered themselves preventing upstream to show their authenticity.”[37] Regardless of shaky press the album is now thought of by a few of their followers to be one of many group’s finest albums.

Nevertheless, press response to the album was not solely unfavourable. In Britain the album obtained a glowing evaluation in Melody Maker. Chris Welch wrote, in a evaluation titled “Jimmy Web page triumphs – Led Zeppelin is a gasoline!”: “their materials doesn’t depend on apparent blues riffs, though after they do play them, they keep away from the emaciated feebleness of most so-called British blues bands”.[38] In Oz, Felix Dennis regarded it as a kind of uncommon albums that “defies quick classification or description, just because it is so clearly a turning level in rock music that solely time proves able to shifting it into eventual perspective”.[39] In evaluating the document to their follow-up Led Zeppelin II, Robert Christgau wrote in The Village Voice that the debut was “subtler and extra bold musically”, and never pretty much as good, “as a result of subtlety defeated the impact. Musicianship, in different phrases, was actually incidental to such music, however the music did have actual energy and validity: a mix of showmanship and overwhelming bodily power.”[40]

The album was a business success. It was initially launched within the US on 12 January 1969 to capitalise on the band’s first North American live performance tour. Earlier than that, Atlantic Information had distributed a number of hundred advance white label copies to key radio stations and reviewers. A constructive response to its contents, coupled with an excellent response to the band’s opening concert events, resulted within the album producing 50,000 advance orders.[41] The album reached quantity 10 on the Billboard chart.[42] The album earned its US gold certification in July 1969.[43]


Retrospective skilled rankings
Evaluation scores
Supply Ranking
AllMusic [44]
Blender [45]
Encyclopedia of Fashionable Music [46]
MusicHound Rock 4/5[47]
Rolling Stone [48]
The Rolling Stone Album Information [49]
Sputnikmusic 3/5[50]
Tom Hull – on the Net A–[51]

The album’s success and affect is extensively acknowledged, even by publications that have been initially sceptical. In 2006, Rolling Stone commented on the originality of the music, and Zeppelin’s heavy model, evaluating them to Cream, Jimi Hendrix, the MC5 and the Stooges, however reiterated that that they had mass enchantment.[15] Led Zeppelin was cited by Stephen Thomas Erlewine as “a major turning level within the evolution of exhausting rock and heavy steel”.[52] In accordance with arts and tradition scholar Michael Fallon, it “introduced the emergence of a loud and uncooked new musical style” in steel.[53] and by the BBC as “a product of the Nineteen Sixties whose usually bombastic model signposted a brand new decade”.[54] Sheldon Pearce from Consequence of Sound regarded it as Zeppelin’s “ode to rock’s progressive metamorphosis” and “the primary exhausting rock domino” for his or her future accomplishments: “Its orchestration delves adventurously via exhausting rock and heavy steel with bluesy undertones that always trigger the chords to weep poignantly as if struck with malice”.[55]

The album was described as a “good if heavy-handed blues-rock offensive” by standard music scholar Ronald Zalkind.[56] Martin Popoff argued that whereas the album might not have been the primary heavy steel document, it did characteristic what was prone to be the primary steel track – “Communication Breakdown” – “with its no-nonsense machine gun between the numbers riff”.[57] In 2003, VH1 named Led Zeppelin the Forty fourth-greatest album of all time. The identical 12 months, the album was ranked twenty ninth on Rolling Stones 500 Best Albums of All Time (their highest charting album on the listing); an accompanying blurb learn: “Heavy steel nonetheless lives in its shadow,”[58] sustaining the score in a 2012 revised listing,[59] and ranked a hundred and first in a 2020 revised listing.[60] In 2004, the album was inducted into the Grammy Corridor of Fame.[61] Jimmy Web page, noticed Aerosmith’s Joe Perry, “was an unimaginable producer and he wrote all these nice songs. When he was chopping the primary Zeppelin album, he knew what he wished. His imaginative and prescient was a lot extra world than Jeff and Eric’s. Enjoying guitar was only one a part of the puzzle … I’ve to have the primary 4 Led Zeppelin albums on me always.”[62]

Accolades for Led Zeppelin
Publication Nation Accolade Yr Rank
The Occasions United Kingdom “The 100 Greatest Albums of All Time”[63] 1993 41
Rolling Stone United States The Rolling Stone 500 Best Albums of All Time[60] 2020 101
Grammy Awards Grammy Corridor of Fame[64] 2004 *
Q United Kingdom “The Music That Modified the World”[65] 7
Robert Dimery United States 1001 Albums You Should Hear Earlier than You Die[66] 2006 *
Basic Rock United Kingdom “100 Best British Rock Album Ever”[67] 81
Uncut 100 Best Debut Albums[68] 7
Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame United States The Definitive 200[69] 2007 165
Q United Kingdom 21 Albums That Modified Music[70] 6

* denotes an unordered listing

2014 reissue

2014 reissue rankings
Mixture scores
Supply Ranking
Metacritic 97/100[71]
Evaluation scores
Supply Ranking
The Austin Chronicle [72]
Consequence of Sound A−[55]
Pitchfork 9.2/10[73]
Q [74]
Rolling Stone [75]

Together with the group’s subsequent two albums – Led Zeppelin II and Led Zeppelin III – the album was remastered and reissued in June 2014. The reissue is available in six codecs: an ordinary CD version, a deluxe two-CD version, an ordinary LP model, a deluxe three-LP model, an excellent deluxe two-CD-plus-three-LP model with a hardback e book, and as high-resolution, 24-bit/96k digital downloads.[76] The deluxe and super-deluxe editions characteristic bonus materials from a live performance on the Olympia in Paris, recorded in October 1969, beforehand obtainable solely in bootleg varieties.[77] The reissue was launched with an inverted black and white model of the unique album’s art work as its bonus disc’s cowl.[76]

The reissue was met with widespread important acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised score out of 100 to evaluations from mainstream publications, the album obtained a median rating of 97, primarily based on 10 evaluations.[71] Q deemed it an enchancment over earlier remasters of the album and credited Web page’s contribution to the remaster for revealing extra element.[74] Erlewine discovered the bonus disc “notably thrilling” in his evaluation for AllMusic, writing that “it isn’t tight however that is its enchantment, because it reveals how the band was an important, dwelling beast, enjoying in another way on-stage than they did within the studio.”[78] In accordance with Paste journal’s Ryan Reed, “for years, Zep-heads have tolerated the murky constancy of the ’90s remasters” till the reissue, which “lastly punches and shimmers as a substitute of fizzling in fuzz”. He was important of the bonus disc, nevertheless, believing it “stays inessential—the very definition of ‘for completists solely.’ … [It] demonstrates Zeppelin at their most bloated, sloppily fumbling via rhythmic cues and increasing tracks to their breaking level”.[77]

Observe itemizing

Aspect one[79]
No. Title Author(s) Size
1. “Good Occasions Unhealthy Occasions”
  • Jimmy Web page
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
  • Robert Plant


2. “Babe I am Gonna Go away You”
  • Anne Bredon
  • Web page
  • Plant


3. “You Shook Me”
  • Willie Dixon
  • J. B. Lenoir


4. “Dazed and Confused” Jake Holmes[e] 6:27
Aspect two[79]
No. Title Author(s) Size
1. “Your Time Is Gonna Come”
  • Web page
  • Jones
  • Plant


2. “Black Mountain Aspect” Web page 2:06
3. “Communication Breakdown”
  • Web page
  • Jones
  • Bonham
  • Plant


4. “I Cannot Stop You Child” Dixon 4:42
5. “How Many Extra Occasions”
  • Web page
  • Jones
  • Bonham
  • Plant


Whole size: 44:45
  • Sides one and two have been mixed as tracks 1–9 on CD reissues.
  • Cassette releases swapped sides one and two
2014 deluxe version bonus disc: Reside on the Olympia – Paris, France – 10 October 1969
No. Title Author(s) Size
1. “Good Occasions Unhealthy Occasions/Communication Breakdown”
  • Web page
  • Jones
  • Bonham
  • Plant
2. “I Cannot Stop You Child” Dixon 6:41
3. “Heartbreaker”
  • Web page
  • Plant
  • Jones
  • Bonham
4. “Dazed and Confused” Jake Holmes 15:01
5. “White Summer season/Black Mountain Aspect” Web page 9:19
6. “You Shook Me”
  • Dixon
  • Lenoir
7. “Moby Dick”
  • Bonham
  • Jones
  • Web page
8. “How Many Extra Occasions”
  • Web page
  • Jones
  • Bonham
  • Plant
Whole size: 1:11:12


Taken from the sleeve notes.[79]

Led Zeppelin

  • Robert Plant – lead vocal, harmonica
  • Jimmy Web page – electrical, acoustic and pedal metal guitars, backing vocal, manufacturing
  • John Paul Jones – bass, organ, backing vocal
  • John Bonham – drums, timpani, backing vocal

Further musician

  • Viram Jasani – tabla on “Black Mountain Aspect”


  • Chris Dreja – again cowl pictures
  • Peter Grant – govt manufacturing
  • George Hardie – cowl design
  • Glyn Johns – engineering, mixing
  • George Marino – CD remastering
  • John Davis – 2014 reissue remastering


Weekly charts


Gross sales certifications for Led Zeppelin
Area Certification Licensed items/gross sales
Argentina (CAPIF)[97] Gold 30,000^
Australia (ARIA)[98] 2× Platinum 140,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[99] Diamond 1,000,000^
France (SNEP)[101] Gold 210,875[100]
Italy (FIMI)[102]
gross sales since 2009
Platinum 50,000double-dagger
Japan (RIAJ)[103] Gold 100,000^
Netherlands (NVPI)[104] Gold 50,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[105] Platinum 100,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[106] Gold 25,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[107] 2× Platinum 600,000^
United States (RIAA)[108] 8× Platinum 8,000,000^

^ Shipments figures primarily based on certification alone.
double-dagger Gross sales+streaming figures primarily based on certification alone.



  • Lewis, Dave (1990). Led Zeppelin : A Celebration. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-711-92416-1.
  • Lewis, Dave; Pallett, Simon (1997). Led Zeppelin: The Live performance File. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-857-12574-3.
  • Lewis, Dave (2012). From A Whisper to A Scream: The Full Information to the Music of Led Zeppelin. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-857-12788-4.
  • Welch, Chris (1994). Led Zeppelin. London: Orion Books. ISBN 978-1-85797-930-5.

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