Clash of Civilizations
Clash of Civilizations

The Conflict of Civilizations is a thesis that folks’s cultural and non secular identities would be the major supply of battle within the submit–Chilly Struggle world.[1][2][3][4][5] The American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington argued that future wars could be fought not between international locations, however between cultures.[1][6] It was proposed in a 1992 lecture on the American Enterprise Institute, which was then developed in a 1993 International Affairs article titled “The Conflict of Civilizations?”,[7] in response to his former pupil Francis Fukuyama’s 1992 guide, The Finish of Historical past and the Final Man. Huntington later expanded his thesis in a 1996 guide The Conflict of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.[8]

The phrase itself was earlier utilized by Albert Camus in 1946,[9] by Girilal Jain in his evaluation of the Ayodhya dispute in 1988,[10] by Bernard Lewis in an article within the September 1990 difficulty of The Atlantic Month-to-month titled “The Roots of Muslim Rage”[11] and by Mahdi El Mandjra in his guide “La première guerre civilisationnelle” printed in 1992.[12][13] Even earlier, the phrase seems in a 1926 guide relating to the Center East by Basil Mathews: Younger Islam on Trek: A Examine within the Conflict of Civilizations (p. 196). This expression derives from “conflict of cultures”, already used in the course of the colonial interval and the Belle Époque.[14]

Huntington started his pondering by surveying the various theories in regards to the nature of world politics within the submit–Chilly Struggle interval. Some theorists and writers argued that human rights, liberal democracy, and the capitalist free market financial system had grow to be the one remaining ideological different for nations within the submit–Chilly Struggle world. Particularly, Francis Fukuyama argued that the world had reached the ‘finish of historical past’ in a Hegelian sense.

Huntington believed that whereas the age of ideology had ended, the world had solely reverted to a traditional state of affairs characterised by cultural battle. In his thesis, he argued that the first axis of battle sooner or later will likely be alongside cultural strains.[15] As an extension, he posits that the idea of various civilizations, as the very best class of cultural identification, will grow to be more and more helpful in analyzing the potential for battle. On the finish of his 1993 International Affairs article, “The Conflict of Civilizations?”, Huntington writes, “This isn’t to advocate the desirability of conflicts between civilizations. It’s to set forth descriptive speculation as to what the longer term could also be like.”[7]

As well as, the conflict of civilizations, for Huntington, represents a improvement of historical past. Previously, world historical past was primarily in regards to the struggles between monarchs, nations and ideologies, similar to that seen inside Western civilization. Nonetheless, after the top of the Chilly Struggle, world politics moved into a brand new part, by which non-Western civilizations are not the exploited recipients of Western civilization however have grow to be further vital actors becoming a member of the West to form and transfer world historical past.[16]

Main civilizations in accordance with Huntington

The conflict of civilizations in accordance with Huntington (1996) The Conflict of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order[17]

Huntington divided the world into the “main civilizations” in his thesis as such:[18][2]

  • Western civilization, comprising the USA and Canada, Western and Central Europe, Australia, Oceania and a lot of the Philippines. Whether or not Latin America and the previous member states of the Soviet Union are included, or are as a substitute their very own separate civilizations, will likely be an vital future consideration for these areas, in accordance with Huntington. The standard Western viewpoint recognized Western Civilization with the Western Christian (Catholic-Protestant) international locations and tradition.[19]
  • Latin American civilization, together with South America (excluding Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana), Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. Could also be thought of part of Western civilization. Many individuals in South America and Mexico regard themselves as full members of Western civilization.
  • Orthodox civilization, comprising Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Romania, nice elements of the previous Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.
    • Nations with a non-Orthodox majority are normally excluded e.g. Muslim Azerbaijan and Muslim Albania and most of Central Asia, in addition to majority Muslim areas within the Balkans, Caucasus and central Russian areas similar to Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, Roman Catholic Slovenia and Croatia, Protestant and Catholic Baltic states). Nonetheless, Armenia is included, regardless of its dominant religion, the Armenian Apostolic Church, being part of Oriental Orthodoxy relatively than the Jap Orthodox Church, and Kazakhstan can also be included, regardless of its dominant religion being Sunni Islam.
  • The Jap world is the combination of the Buddhist, Chinese language, Hindu, and Japonic civilizations.
    • The Buddhist areas of Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand are recognized as separate from different civilizations, however Huntington believes that they don’t represent a significant civilization within the sense of worldwide affairs.
    • The Sinic civilization of China, the Koreas, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam. This group additionally contains the Chinese language diaspora, particularly in relation to Southeast Asia.
    • Hindu civilization, positioned mainly in India, Bhutan and Nepal, and culturally adhered to by the worldwide Indian diaspora.
    • Japan, thought of a hybrid of Chinese language civilization and older Altaic patterns.
  • The Muslim world of the Higher Center East (excluding Armenia, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Georgia, Israel, Malta and South Sudan), northern West Africa, Albania, Pakistan, Bangladesh, elements of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Comoros, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives and southern Philippines.
  • The civilization of Sub-Saharan Africa positioned in southern Africa, Center Africa (excluding Chad), East Africa (excluding Ethiopia, the Comoros, Mauritius, and the Swahili coast of Kenya and Tanzania), Cape Verde, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Thought of as a potential eighth civilization by Huntington.
  • As an alternative of belonging to one of many “main” civilizations, Ethiopia and Haiti are labeled as “Lone” international locations. Israel could possibly be thought of a singular state with its personal civilization, Huntington writes, however one which is extraordinarily much like the West. Huntington additionally believes that the Anglophone Caribbean, former British colonies within the Caribbean, constitutes a definite entity.
  • There are additionally others that are thought of “cleft international locations” as a result of they comprise very giant teams of individuals figuring out with separate civilizations. Examples embody Ukraine (“cleft” between its Jap Ceremony Catholic-dominated western part and its Orthodox-dominated east), French Guiana (cleft between Latin America, and the West), Benin, Chad, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Togo (all cleft between Islam and Sub-Saharan Africa), Guyana and Suriname (cleft between Hindu and Sub-Saharan African), Sri Lanka (cleft between Hindu and Buddhist), and the Philippines (cleft between Islam, within the case of Mindanao; Sinic, within the case of Cordillera; and the West). Sudan was additionally included as “cleft” between Islam and Sub-Saharan Africa; this division turned a proper break up in July 2011 following an amazing vote for independence by South Sudan in a January 2011 referendum.

Huntington's thesis of civilizational conflict

Huntington on the 2004 World Financial Discussion board

Huntington argues that the developments of world battle after the top of the Chilly Struggle are more and more showing at these civilizational divisions. Wars similar to these following the break up of Yugoslavia, in Chechnya, and between India and Pakistan had been cited as proof of inter-civilizational battle. He additionally argues that the widespread Western perception within the universality of the West’s values and political methods is naïve and that continued insistence on democratization and such “common” norms will solely additional antagonize different civilizations. Huntington sees the West as reluctant to just accept this as a result of it constructed the worldwide system, wrote its legal guidelines, and gave it substance within the type of the United Nations.

Huntington identifies a significant shift of financial, army, and political energy from the West to the opposite civilizations of the world, most importantly to what he identifies as the 2 “challenger civilizations”, Sinic and Islam.

In Huntington’s view, East Asian Sinic civilization is culturally asserting itself and its values relative to the West as a result of its speedy financial progress. Particularly, he believes that China’s targets are to reassert itself because the regional hegemon, and that different international locations within the area will ‘bandwagon’ with China as a result of historical past of hierarchical command constructions implicit within the Confucian Sinic civilization, versus the individualism and pluralism valued within the West. Regional powers similar to the 2 Koreas and Vietnam will acquiesce to Chinese language calls for and grow to be extra supportive of China relatively than trying to oppose it. Huntington subsequently believes that the rise of China poses some of the important issues and essentially the most highly effective long-term risk to the West, as Chinese language cultural assertion clashes with the American want for the dearth of a regional hegemony in East Asia.[citation needed]

Huntington argues that the Islamic civilization has skilled a large inhabitants explosion which is fueling instability each on the borders of Islam and in its inside, the place fundamentalist actions have gotten more and more standard. Manifestations of what he phrases the “Islamic Resurgence” embody the 1979 Iranian revolution and the primary Gulf Struggle. Maybe essentially the most controversial assertion Huntington made within the International Affairs article was that “Islam has bloody borders”. Huntington believes this to be an actual consequence of a number of elements, together with the beforehand talked about Muslim youth bulge and inhabitants progress and Islamic proximity to many civilizations together with Sinic, Orthodox, Western, and African.

Huntington sees Islamic civilization as a possible ally to China, each having extra revisionist targets and sharing widespread conflicts with different civilizations, particularly the West. Particularly, he identifies widespread Chinese language and Islamic pursuits within the areas of weapons proliferation, human rights, and democracy that battle with these of the West, and feels that these are areas by which the 2 civilizations will cooperate.

Russia, Japan, and India are what Huntington phrases ‘swing civilizations’ and should favor both aspect. Russia, for instance, clashes with the numerous Muslim ethnic teams on its southern border (similar to Chechnya) however—in accordance with Huntington—cooperates with Iran to keep away from additional Muslim-Orthodox violence in Southern Russia, and to assist proceed the stream of oil. Huntington argues {that a} “Sino-Islamic connection” is rising by which China will cooperate extra carefully with Iran, Pakistan, and different states to reinforce its worldwide place.

Huntington additionally argues that civilizational conflicts are “notably prevalent between Muslims and non-Muslims”, figuring out the “bloody borders” between Islamic and non-Islamic civilizations. This battle dates again so far as the preliminary thrust of Islam into Europe, its eventual expulsion within the Iberian reconquest, the assaults of the Ottoman Turks on Jap Europe and Vienna, and the European imperial division of the Islamic nations within the 1800s and 1900s.

Huntington additionally believes that among the elements contributing to this battle are that each Christianity (upon which Western civilization is predicated) and Islam are:

  • Missionary religions, looking for conversion of others
  • Common, “all-or-nothing” religions, within the sense that it’s believed by either side that solely their religion is the proper one
  • Teleological religions, that’s, that their values and beliefs signify the targets of existence and function in human existence.

Newer elements contributing to a Western–Islamic conflict, Huntington wrote, are the Islamic Resurgence and demographic explosion in Islam, coupled with the values of Western universalism—that’s, the view that every one civilizations ought to undertake Western values—that infuriate Islamic fundamentalists. All these historic and trendy elements mixed, Huntington wrote briefly in his International Affairs article and in far more element in his 1996 guide, would result in a bloody conflict between the Islamic and Western civilizations.

Why civilizations will conflict

Huntington affords six explanations for why civilizations will conflict:

  1. Variations amongst civilizations are too fundamental in that civilizations are differentiated from one another by historical past, language, tradition, custom, and, most significantly, faith. These elementary variations are the product of centuries and the foundations of various civilizations, that means they won’t be gone quickly.
  2. The world is changing into a smaller place. Because of this, interactions the world over are rising, which intensify “civilization consciousness” and the attention of variations between civilizations and commonalities inside civilizations.
  3. On account of financial modernization and social change, persons are separated from longstanding native identities. As an alternative, faith has changed this hole, which supplies a foundation for identification and dedication that transcends nationwide boundaries and unites civilizations.
  4. The expansion of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by the twin position of the West. On the one hand, the West is at a peak of energy. On the similar time, a return-to-the-roots phenomenon is going on amongst non-Western civilizations. A West on the peak of its energy confronts non-Western international locations that more and more have the need, the desire and the assets to form the world in non-Western methods.
  5. Cultural traits and variations are much less mutable and therefore much less simply compromised and resolved than political and financial ones.
  6. Financial regionalism is rising. Profitable financial regionalism will reinforce civilization-consciousness. Financial regionalism might succeed solely when it’s rooted in a typical civilization.

The West versus the Relaxation

Huntington means that sooner or later the central axis of world politics tends to be the battle between Western and non-Western civilizations, in Stuart Corridor’s phrase, the battle between “the West and the Relaxation”. He affords three types of common and elementary actions that non-Western civilization can soak up response to Western international locations.[20]

  1. Non-Western international locations can try to attain isolation in an effort to protect their very own values and shield themselves from Western invasion. Nonetheless, Huntington argues that the prices of this motion are excessive and just a few states can pursue it.
  2. In response to the idea of “band-wagoning” non-Western international locations can be a part of and settle for Western values.
  3. Non-Western international locations could make an effort to stability Western energy by modernization. They’ll develop financial, army energy and cooperate with different non-Western international locations towards the West whereas nonetheless preserving their very own values and establishments. Huntington believes that the rising energy of non-Western civilizations in worldwide society will make the West start to develop a greater understanding of the cultural fundamentals underlying different civilizations. Subsequently, Western civilization will stop to be thought to be “common” however completely different civilizations will study to coexist and be a part of to form the longer term world.

Core state and fault line conflicts

In Huntington’s view, intercivilizational battle manifests itself in two kinds: fault line conflicts and core state conflicts.

Fault line conflicts are on an area degree and happen between adjoining states belonging to completely different civilizations or inside states which are dwelling to populations from completely different civilizations.

Core state conflicts are on a world degree between the foremost states of various civilizations. Core state conflicts can come up out of fault line conflicts when core states grow to be concerned.[21]

These conflicts might outcome from quite a lot of causes, similar to: relative affect or energy (army or financial), discrimination towards folks from a special civilization, intervention to guard kinsmen in a special civilization, or completely different values and tradition, notably when one civilization makes an attempt to impose its values on folks of a special civilization.[21]

Modernization, Westernization, and “torn international locations”

Japan, China and the 4 Asian Tigers have modernized in lots of respects whereas sustaining conventional or authoritarian societies which distinguish them from the West. A few of these international locations have clashed with the West and a few haven’t.

Maybe the final word instance of non-Western modernization is Russia, the core state of the Orthodox civilization. Huntington argues that Russia is primarily a non-Western state though he appears to agree that it shares a substantial quantity of cultural ancestry with the fashionable West. In response to Huntington, the West is distinguished from Orthodox Christian international locations by its expertise of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Enlightenment; by abroad colonialism relatively than contiguous enlargement and colonialism; and by the infusion of Classical tradition by historical Greece relatively than by the continual trajectory of the Byzantine Empire.

Huntington refers to international locations which are looking for to affiliate with one other civilization as “torn international locations”. Turkey, whose political management has systematically tried to Westernize the nation because the Twenties, is his chief instance. Turkey’s historical past, tradition, and traditions are derived from Islamic civilization, however Turkey’s elite, starting with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk who took energy as first President in 1923, imposed Western establishments and gown, embraced the Latin alphabet, joined NATO, and has sought to affix the European Union.

Mexico and Russia are additionally thought of to be torn by Huntington. He additionally offers the instance of Australia as a rustic torn between its Western civilizational heritage and its rising financial engagement with Asia.

In response to Huntington, a torn nation should meet three necessities to redefine its civilizational identification. Its political and financial elite should assist the transfer. Second, the general public should be prepared to just accept the redefinition. Third, the elites of the civilization that the torn nation is attempting to affix should settle for the nation.

The guide claims that thus far no torn nation has efficiently redefined its civilizational identification, this principally as a result of elites of the ‘host’ civilization refusing to just accept the torn nation, although if Turkey gained membership within the European Union, it has been famous that a lot of its folks would assist Westernization, as within the following quote by EU Minister Egemen Bağış: “That is what Europe must do: they should say that when Turkey fulfills all necessities, Turkey will grow to be a member of the EU on date X. Then, we’ll regain the Turkish public opinion assist in at some point.”[22] If this had been to occur, it will, in accordance with Huntington, be the primary to redefine its civilizational identification.


The guide has been criticized by varied tutorial writers, who’ve empirically, traditionally, logically, or ideologically challenged its claims (Fox, 2005; Mungiu Pippidi & Mindruta, 2002; Henderson & Tucker, 2001; Russett, Oneal, & Cox, 2000; Harvey, 2000).[23][24][25][26] Political scientist Paul Musgrave writes that Conflict of Civilization “enjoys nice cachet among the many type of policymaker who enjoys name-dropping Solar Tzu, however few specialists in worldwide relations depend on it and even cite it approvingly. Bluntly, Conflict has not confirmed to be a helpful or correct information to understanding the world.”[27]

In an article explicitly referring to Huntington, scholar Amartya Sen (1999) argues that “variety is a function of most cultures on the planet. Western civilization isn’t any exception. The observe of democracy that has received out within the trendy West is basically a results of a consensus that has emerged because the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, and notably within the final century or so. To learn on this a historic dedication of the West—over the millennia—to democracy, after which to distinction it with non-Western traditions (treating every as monolithic) could be an awesome mistake.”[28]: 16 

In his 2003 guide Terror and Liberalism, Paul Berman argues that distinct cultural boundaries don’t exist within the current day. He argues there isn’t any “Islamic civilization” nor a “Western civilization”, and that the proof for a civilization conflict will not be convincing, particularly when contemplating relationships similar to that between the USA and Saudi Arabia. As well as, he cites the truth that many Islamic extremists spent a major period of time dwelling or learning within the Western world. In response to Berman, battle arises due to philosophical beliefs varied teams share (or don’t share), no matter cultural or spiritual identification.[29]

Timothy Garton Ash objects to the ‘excessive cultural determinism… crude to the purpose of parody’ of Huntington’s concept that Catholic and Protestant Europe is headed for democracy, however that Orthodox Christian and Islamic Europe should settle for dictatorship.[30]

Edward Mentioned issued a response to Huntington’s thesis in his 2001 article, “The Conflict of Ignorance”.[31] Mentioned argues that Huntington’s categorization of the world’s fastened “civilizations” omits the dynamic interdependency and interplay of tradition. A longtime critic of the Huntingtonian paradigm, and an outspoken proponent of Arab points, Mentioned (2004) additionally argues that the conflict of civilizations thesis is an instance of “the purest invidious racism, a type of parody of Hitlerian science directed at the moment towards Arabs and Muslims” (p. 293).[32]

Noam Chomsky has criticized the idea of the conflict of civilizations as simply being a brand new justification for the USA “for any atrocities that they wished to hold out”, which was required after the Chilly Struggle because the Soviet Union was not a viable risk.[33]

In 21 Classes for the twenty first Century, Yuval Noah Harari known as the conflict of civilizations a deceptive thesis. He wrote that Islamic fundamentalism is extra of a risk to a world civilization, relatively than a confrontation with the West. He additionally argued that speaking about civilizations utilizing analogies from evolutionary biology is fallacious.[34]

Intermediate Area

Huntington’s geopolitical mannequin, particularly the constructions for North Africa and Eurasia, is basically derived from the “Intermediate Area” geopolitical mannequin first formulated by Dimitri Kitsikis and printed in 1978.[35] The Intermediate Area, which spans the Adriatic Sea and the Indus River, is neither Western nor Jap (a minimum of, with respect to the Far East) however is taken into account distinct. Regarding this area, Huntington departs from Kitsikis contending {that a} civilizational fault line exists between the 2 dominant but differing religions (Jap Orthodoxy and Sunni Islam), therefore a dynamic of exterior battle. Nonetheless, Kitsikis establishes an built-in civilization comprising these two peoples together with these belonging to the much less dominant religions of Shia Islam, Alevism, and Judaism. They’ve a set of mutual cultural, social, financial and political opinions and norms which radically differ from these within the West and the Far East. Within the Intermediate Area, subsequently, one can not communicate of a civilizational conflict or exterior battle, however relatively an inner battle, not for cultural domination, however for political succession. This has been efficiently demonstrated by documenting the rise of Christianity from the Hellenized Roman Empire, the rise of the Islamic caliphates from the Christianized Roman Empire and the rise of Ottoman rule from the Islamic caliphates and the Christianized Roman Empire.

Mohammad Khatami, reformist president of Iran (in workplace 1997–2005), launched the idea of Dialogue Amongst Civilizations as a response to Huntington’s idea.

Opposing ideas

In recent times, the idea of Dialogue Amongst Civilizations, a response to Huntington’s Conflict of Civilizations, has grow to be the middle of some worldwide consideration. The idea was initially coined by Austrian thinker Hans Köchler in an essay on cultural identification (1972).[36] In a letter to UNESCO, Köchler had earlier proposed that the cultural group of the United Nations ought to take up the difficulty of a “dialogue between completely different civilizations” (dialogue entre les différentes civilisations).[37] In 2001, Iranian president Mohammad Khatami launched the idea on the world degree. At his initiative, the United Nations proclaimed the 12 months 2001 because the “United Nations 12 months of Dialogue amongst Civilizations”.[38][39][40]

The Alliance of Civilizations (AOC) initiative was proposed on the 59th Normal Meeting of the United Nations in 2005 by the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and co-sponsored by the Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The initiative is meant to provoke collective motion throughout various societies to fight extremism, to beat cultural and social boundaries between primarily the Western and predominantly Muslim worlds, and to scale back the tensions and polarization between societies which differ in spiritual and cultural values.

Different civilizational fashions

  • Eurasianism, a Russian geopolitical idea based mostly on the civilization of Eurasia
  • Intermediate Area
  • Pan-Turkism
  • Islamo-Christian Civilization


  • Carroll Quigley
  • Dimitri Kitsikis
  • Jacob Burckhardt
  • Niall Ferguson
  • Feliks Koneczny
  • Oswald Spengler
  • Richard Bulliet

See additionally

  • Balkanization
  • Civilizing mission
  • Criticism of multiculturalism
  • World policeman
  • Opposition to immigration
  • Chilly Struggle II
  • Cultural relativism
  • Jap Social gathering
  • Fault line battle
  • Orientalism
    • Oriental Despotism
  • Potential superpowers
  • Protracted social battle
  • Non secular pluralism
  • Inglehart–Welzel cultural map of the world


  • Ankerl, Man (2000). World communication with out common civilization. INU societal analysis. Vol. 1: Coexisting up to date civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese language, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 978-2-88155-004-1.
  • Barbé, Philippe, “L’Anti-Choc des Civilisations: Méditations Méditerranéennes”, Editions de l’Aube, 2006, ISBN 978-2-7526-0208-4
  • Barber, Benjamin R., Jihad vs. McWorld, Hardcover: Crown, 1995, ISBN 0-8129-2350-2; Paperback: Ballantine Books, 1996, ISBN 0-345-38304-4
  • Blankley, Tony, The West’s Final Probability: Will We Win the Conflict of Civilizations?, Washington, D.C., Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2005 ISBN 0-89526-015-8
  • Harris, Lee, Civilization and Its Enemies: The Subsequent Stage of Historical past, New York, The Free Press, 2004 ISBN 0-7432-5749-9
  • Harrison, Lawrence E. and Samuel P. Huntington (eds.), Tradition Issues: How Values Form Human Progress, New York, Fundamental Books, 2001 ISBN 0-465-03176-5
  • Harvey, David (2000). Areas of Hope. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh College Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-7486-1269-7.
  • Huntington, Samuel P., The Conflict of Civilizations?, in “International Affairs”, vol. 72, no. 3, Summer time 1993, pp. 22–49
  • Huntington, Samuel P., The Conflict of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996 ISBN 0-684-84441-9
  • Huntington, Samuel P. (ed.), The Conflict of Civilizations?: The Debate, New York, International Affairs, 1996 ISBN 0-87609-164-8
  • Kepel, Gilles, Unhealthy Moon Rising: a chronicle of the Center East at the moment, London, Saqi Books, 2003 ISBN 0-86356-303-1
  • Köchler, Hans (ed.), Civilizations: Battle or Dialogue?, Vienna, Worldwide Progress Group, 1999 ISBN 3-900704-18-X (Google Print)
  • Köchler, Hans, After September 11, 2001: Conflict of Civilizations or Dialogue? College of the Philippines, Manila, 2002
  • Köchler, Hans, The “Conflict of Civilizations”: Notion and Actuality within the Context of Globalization and Worldwide Energy Politics, Tbilisi (Georgia), 2004
  • Pera, Marcello and Joseph Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), Senza radici: Europa, Relativismo, Cristianesimo, Islam [transl.: Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Perseus Books Group, 2006 ISBN 0-465-00634-5], Milano, Mondadori, 2004 ISBN 88-04-54474-0
  • Peters, Ralph, Preventing for the Future: Will America Triumph?, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, Stackpole Books, 1999 ISBN 0-8117-0651-6
  • Potter, Robert (2011), ‘Recalcitrant Interdependence’, Thesis, Flinders College
  • Sacks, Jonathan, The Dignity of Distinction: The right way to Keep away from the Conflict of Civilizations, London, Continuum, 2002 ISBN 0-8264-6397-5
  • Toft, Monica Duffy, The Geography of Ethnic Violence: Id, Pursuits, and the Indivisibility of Territory, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton College Press, 2003 ISBN 0-691-11354-8
  • Tusicisny, Andrej, “Civilizational Conflicts: Extra Frequent, Longer, and Bloodier?”, in Journal of Peace Analysis, vol. 41, no. 4, 2004, pp. 485–498 (out there on-line)
  • Van Creveld, Martin, The Transformation of Struggle, New York & London, The Free Press, 1991 ISBN 0-02-933155-2
  • Venn, Couze “Conflict of Civilisations”, in Prem Poddar et al., Historic Companion to Postcolonial Literatures—Continental Europe and its Empires, Edinburgh College Press, 2008.

Additional studying

  • Tony Blankley, The West’s Final Probability: Will We Win the Conflict of Civilizations?
  • J. Paul Barker, ed. Huntington’s Conflict of Civilization: Twenty Years On E-Worldwide Relations, Bristol, 2013.
  • Nikolaos A. Denaxas, The conflict of civilizations in accordance with Samuel Huntington – Orthodox criticism, 2008. (postgraduate thesis in Greek)
  • Hale, H., & Laruelle, M. (2020). “Rethinking Civilizational Id from the Backside Up: A Case Examine of Russia and a Analysis Agenda.” Nationalities Papers
  • James Kurth, The Actual Conflict, The Nationwide Curiosity, 1994
  • Davide Orsi, ed. The ‘Conflict of Civilizations’ 25 Years On: A Multidisciplinary Appraisal E-Worldwide Relations, Bristol, 2018.
  • Edward Mentioned, The Conflict of Ignorance, The Nation
  • Mentioned Shirazi, “Your New Enemies”, Dissident Voice

  • “The Conflict of Civilizations?” – Unique essay from International Affairs 1993
  • “If Not Civilizations, What? Samuel Huntington Responds to His Critics”, International Affairs, 1993

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