Madonna Louise Ciccone (/ɪˈokni/; Italian: [tʃikˈkoːne]; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer-songwriter and actress. She is taken into account one of the vital influential figures in in style tradition and has usually been known as the “Queen of Pop”.[3] Madonna is famous for her continuous reinvention and flexibility in music manufacturing, songwriting, and visible presentation. She can also be identified for pushing the boundaries of creative expression in mainstream music, whereas sustaining management over each facet of her profession.[4] Her works, which incorporate social, political, sexual, and non secular themes, have generated each controversy and demanding acclaim.

Madonna moved to New York Metropolis in 1978 to pursue a profession in fashionable dance. After performing as a drummer, guitarist, and vocalist within the rock bands Breakfast Membership and Emmy, she rose to solo stardom along with her debut studio album, Madonna (1983). She adopted it with a collection of profitable albums, together with all-time bestsellers Like a Virgin (1984), True Blue (1986) and The Immaculate Assortment (1990) in addition to Grammy Award winners Ray of Mild (1998) and Confessions on a Dance Ground (2005). Madonna has amassed many number-one singles all through her profession, together with “Like a Virgin”, “La Isla Bonita”, “Like a Prayer”, “Vogue”, “Take a Bow”, “Frozen”, “Music”, “Hung Up”, and “4 Minutes”.

Madonna’s reputation was enhanced by roles in movies equivalent to Desperately In search of Susan (1985), Dick Tracy (1990), A League of Their Personal (1992), and Evita (1996). Whereas Evita received her a Golden Globe Award for Finest Actress, a lot of her different movies acquired poor critiques. As a businesswoman, Madonna based the corporate Maverick in 1992; it included Maverick Information, one of the vital profitable artist-run labels in historical past. Her different ventures embrace vogue manufacturers, kids’s books, well being golf equipment, and filmmaking. She contributes to varied charities, having based the Ray of Mild Basis in 1998 and Elevating Malawi in 2006.

With gross sales of over 300 million data worldwide, Madonna is famous because the best-selling feminine music artist of all time by Guinness World Information. She is probably the most profitable solo artist within the historical past of the U.S. Billboard Sizzling 100 chart and holds the report for probably the most number-one singles by a feminine artist in Australia, Canada, Italy, Spain, and the UK. With a income of over U.S. $1.5 billion from her live performance tickets, she stays the highest-grossing solo touring artist of all time. Madonna was inducted into the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame in 2008, her first yr of eligibility. She was ranked as the best girl in music by VH1, and because the biggest music video artist of all time by MTV and Billboard. Rolling Stone additionally listed Madonna among the many 100 Biggest Artists of All Time and the 100 Biggest Songwriters of All Time.

Life and profession

1958–1978: Youth

Madonna Louise Ciccone[5] was born on August 16, 1958, in Bay Metropolis, Michigan, to Catholic mother and father Madonna Louise (née Fortin) and Silvio Anthony “Tony” Ciccone.[6][7] Her father’s mother and father have been Italian emigrants from Pacentro whereas her mom was of French-Canadian descent.[8] Tony Ciccone labored as an engineer designer for Chrysler and Basic Motors. Since Madonna had the identical identify as her mom, members of the family known as her “Little Nonnie”.[9] She later adopted Veronica as a affirmation identify when she was confirmed within the Catholic Church in 1966.[10] Madonna was raised within the Detroit suburbs of Pontiac and Avon Township (now Rochester Hills), alongside her two older brothers, Anthony and Martin, and three youthful siblings, Paula, Christopher, and Melanie.[11]

Madonna’s mom died of breast most cancers on December 1, 1963. In 1966, Tony married the household’s housekeeper Joan Gustafson. That they had two kids, Jennifer and Mario.[11] Madonna resented her father for getting remarried and commenced rebelling in opposition to him, which strained their relationship for a few years afterward.[6]

Madonna attended St. Frederick’s and St. Andrew’s Catholic Elementary Colleges, and West Center College. Madonna was identified for her excessive grade level common and achieved notoriety for her unconventional conduct. She would carry out cartwheels and handstands within the hallways between courses, dangle by her knees from the monkey bars throughout recess, and pull up her skirt throughout class—all in order that the boys may see her underwear.[12] Madonna later informed Self-importance Honest that she noticed herself in her youth as a “lonely woman who was trying to find one thing. I wasn’t rebellious in a sure manner. I cared about being good at one thing. I did not shave my underarms and I did not put on make-up like regular women do. However I studied and I received good grades… I wished to be someone.”[6]

Madonna’s father put her in classical piano classes, however she later satisfied him to permit her to take ballet classes.[13] Christopher Flynn, her ballet trainer persuaded her to pursue a profession in dance.[14] She later attended Rochester Adams Excessive College, the place she turned a straight-A pupil and a member of the cheerleading squad.[15][16] After graduating, she acquired a dance scholarship to the College of Michigan and studied over the summer season on the American Dance Competition in Durham, North Carolina.[17][18]

In 1978, Madonna dropped out of school and relocated to New York Metropolis.[19] She mentioned of her transfer to New York, “It was the primary time I might ever taken a aircraft, the primary time I might ever gotten a taxi cab. I got here right here with $35 in my pocket. It was the bravest factor I might ever completed.”[20] She quickly discovered an condo within the Alphabet Metropolis neighborhood of the East Village.[21] She had little cash whereas working at Dunkin’ Donuts and with fashionable dance troupes, taking courses on the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater and finally performing with Pearl Lang Dance Theater.[22][18][23] She additionally studied dance beneath the tutelage of Martha Graham, the famous American dancer and choreographer.[24] Madonna began to work as a backup dancer for different established artists. One evening, whereas coming back from a rehearsal, a pair of males held her at knifepoint and compelled her to carry out fellatio. She later discovered the incident to be “a style of my weak point, it confirmed me that I nonetheless couldn’t save myself regardless of all of the strong-girl present. I may always remember it.”[25]

1979–1985: Profession beginnings, Madonna, Like a Virgin, and first marriage

In 1979, Madonna turned romantically concerned with musician Dan Gilroy.[26] Shortly after assembly him, she efficiently auditioned to carry out in Paris with French disco artist Patrick Hernandez as his backup singer and dancer.[22] Throughout her three months with Hernandez’s troupe, she additionally traveled to Tunisia earlier than returning to New York in August 1979.[26][27] Madonna moved into an deserted synagogue the place Gilroy lived and rehearsed in Corona, Queens.[22][12] Collectively they shaped her first band, the Breakfast Membership, for which Madonna sang and performed drums and guitar.[28] Whereas with the band, Madonna briefly labored as a coat-check woman on the Russian Tea Room, and he or she made her performing debut within the low-budget indie movie A Sure Sacrifice, which was not launched till 1985.[29][30] In 1980, Madonna left the Breakfast Membership with drummer Stephen Bray, who was her boyfriend in Michigan, and so they shaped the band Emmy and the Emmys.[31] They rekindled their romance and moved into the Music Constructing in Manhattan.[22] The 2 started writing songs collectively and so they recorded a four-song demo tape in November 1980, however quickly after, Madonna determined to advertise herself as a solo artist.[32][22]

In March 1981, Camille Barbone, who ran Gotham Information within the Music Constructing, signed Madonna to a contract with Gotham and labored as her supervisor till February 1982.[33][34][35] Madonna frequented nightclubs to get disc jockeys to play her demo.[36] DJ Mark Kamins at Danceteria took an curiosity in her music and so they started relationship.[37] Kamins organized a gathering with Madonna and Seymour Stein, the president of Sire Information, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Information.[36] Madonna signed a deal for a complete of three singles, with an possibility for an album.[38] Kamins produced her debut single, “All people”, which was launched in October 1982.[36] In December 1982, Madonna carried out the tune dwell for the primary time at Danceteria.[39][40] She made her first tv look performing “All people” on Dancin’ On Air in January 1983.[41] In February 1983, she promoted the only with nightclub performances in the UK.[42] Her second single, “Burning Up”, was launched in March 1983. Each singles reached quantity three on Billboard journal’s Sizzling Dance Membership Songs chart.[43] Throughout this era, Madonna was in a relationship with artist Jean-Michel Basquiat and dwelling at his loft in SoHo.[44][45] Basquiat launched her to artwork curator Diego Cortez, who had managed some punk bands and co-founded the Mudd Membership.[46] Madonna invited Cortez to be her supervisor, however he declined.[46]

Following the success of the singles, Warner employed Reggie Lucas to supply her self-titled debut album, Madonna.[47] Nonetheless, Madonna was dissatisfied with the finished tracks and disagreed with Lucas’ manufacturing strategies, so she determined to hunt extra assist.[48] She requested John “Jellybean” Benitez, the resident DJ at Enjoyable Home, to assist end the album’s manufacturing and a romance ensued.[49] Benitez remixed a lot of the tracks and produced “Vacation”, which was her first worldwide top-ten tune. The album was launched in July 1983, and peaked at quantity eight on the Billboard 200. It yielded two top-ten singles on the Billboard Sizzling 100, “Borderline” and “Fortunate Star”.[50] Within the fall of 1983, Madonna’s new supervisor, Feddy DeMann, secured a gathering for her with movie producer Jon Peters, who requested her to play the a part of a membership singer within the romantic drama Imaginative and prescient Quest.[51]

In January 1984, Madonna gained extra publicity by acting on American Bandstand and Prime of the Pops.[52][53] Her picture, performances, and music movies influenced younger women and girls.[54] Madonna’s model turned one of many feminine vogue traits of the Nineteen Eighties.[55] Created by stylist and jewellery designer Maripol, the look consisted of lace tops, skirts over capri pants, fishnet stockings, jewellery bearing the crucifix, bracelets, and bleached hair.[56][57][58] Madonna’s reputation continued to rise globally with the discharge of her second studio album, Like a Virgin, in November 1984. It turned her first number-one album in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, the UK, and the US.[59][60] Like a Virgin turned the primary album by a feminine to promote over 5 million copies within the U.S.[61] It was later licensed diamond in by the Recording Business Affiliation of America (RIAA), and has bought over 21 million copies worldwide.[62]

Madonna performing on the 1985 Dwell Support charity live performance

The album’s title monitor served as its first single, and topped the Sizzling 100 chart for six consecutive weeks.[63] It attracted the eye of conservative organizations who complained that the tune and its accompanying video promoted premarital intercourse and undermined household values,[64] and moralists sought to have the tune and video banned.[65] Madonna acquired big media protection for her efficiency of “Like a Virgin” on the first 1984 MTV Video Music Awards. Sporting a marriage gown and white gloves, Madonna appeared on stage atop an enormous marriage ceremony cake after which rolled round suggestively on the ground. MTV retrospectively thought of it one of many “most iconic” pop performances of all time.[66] The second single, “Materials Lady”, reached quantity two on the Sizzling 100.[50] Whereas filming the only’s music video, Madonna began relationship actor Sean Penn. They married on her birthday in 1985.[67]

Madonna entered mainstream movies in February 1985, starting along with her cameo in Imaginative and prescient Quest. The soundtrack contained two new singles, her U.S. number-one single, “Loopy for You”, and one other monitor “Gambler”.[50] She additionally performed the title position within the 1985 comedy Desperately In search of Susan, a movie which launched the tune “Into the Groove”, her first number-one single within the UK.[68] Her reputation brought on the movie to be perceived as a Madonna car, regardless of how she was not billed as a lead actress.[69] The New York Instances movie critic Vincent Canby named it one of many ten finest movies of 1985.[70]

Starting in April 1985, Madonna launched into her first live performance tour in North America, the Virgin Tour, with the Beastie Boys as her opening act. The tour noticed the height of Madonna wannabe phenomenon, with many feminine attendees dressing like her.[71] At the moment, she launched two extra hits, “Angel” and “Costume You Up”, making all 4 singles from the album peak inside the highest 5 on the Sizzling 100 chart.[72] In July, Penthouse and Playboy magazines printed quite a lot of nude images of Madonna, taken when she moonlighted as an artwork mannequin in 1978.[73] She had posed for the images as a result of she wanted cash on the time, and was paid as little as $25 a session.[74] The publication of the images brought on a media uproar, however Madonna remained “unapologetic and defiant”.[75] The images have been in the end bought for as much as $100,000.[74] She referred to those occasions on the 1985 outside Dwell Support charity live performance, saying that she wouldn’t take her jacket off as a result of “[the media] may maintain it in opposition to me ten years from now.”[75][76]

1986–1991: True Blue, Who’s That Lady, Like a Prayer, and Dick Tracy

In June 1986, Madonna launched her third studio album, True Blue, which was impressed by and devoted to her husband Penn.[77] Rolling Stone was impressed with the trouble, writing that the album “sound[s] as if it comes from the guts”.[78] 5 singles have been launched—”Dwell to Inform”, “Papa Do not Preach”, “True Blue”, “Open Your Coronary heart”, and “La Isla Bonita”—3 of which reached primary within the U.S. or the UK.[50][79] The album topped the charts in 28 nations worldwide, an unprecedented achievement on the time, and stays Madonna’s best-selling studio album, with gross sales of 25 million copies.[80][81] True Blue was featured within the 1992 version of Guinness World Information because the best-selling album by a lady of all time.[82]

Madonna starred within the critically panned movie Shanghai Shock in 1986, for which she acquired her first Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actress.[83] She made her theatrical debut in a manufacturing of David Rabe’s Goose and Tom-Tom; the movie and play each co-starred Penn.[84] The following yr, Madonna was featured within the movie Who’s That Lady. She contributed 4 songs to its soundtrack, together with the title monitor and “Inflicting a Commotion”.[85] Madonna launched into the Who’s That Lady World Tour in June 1987, which continued till September.[86][87] It broke a number of attendance data, together with over 130,000 individuals in a present close to Paris, which was then a report for the highest-attended feminine live performance of all time.[88] Later that yr, she launched a remix album of previous hits, You Can Dance, which reached quantity 14 on the Billboard 200.[59][89]

After a tumultuous two years of marriage, Madonna filed for divorce from Penn on December 4, 1987, however withdrew the petition just a few weeks later.[90][91] She made her Broadway debut within the manufacturing of Velocity-the-Plow on the Royale Theatre from Could to August 1988.[92][93] In keeping with the Related Press, Madonna filed an assault report in opposition to Penn after an alleged incident at their Malibu dwelling through the New 12 months’s weekend.[94][95] Madonna filed for divorce on January 5, 1989, and the next week she reportedly requested that no felony costs be pressed.[96][94]

In January 1989, Madonna signed an endorsement take care of soft-drink producer Pepsi.[97] In a single Pepsi business, she debuted “Like a Prayer”, the lead single and title monitor from her fourth studio album. The music video featured Catholic symbols equivalent to stigmata and cross burning, and a dream of constructing like to a saint, main the Vatican to sentence the video. Non secular teams sought to ban the business and boycott Pepsi merchandise. Pepsi revoked the business and canceled her sponsorship contract.[98][99] “Like a Prayer” topped the charts in lots of nations, turning into her seventh primary on the Sizzling 100.[85][50]

Madonna co-wrote and co-produced the album Like a Prayer with Patrick Leonard, Stephen Bray, and Prince.[100] Music critic J. D. Considine from Rolling Stone praised it “as near artwork as pop music will get … proof not solely that Madonna must be taken significantly as an artist however that hers is among the most compelling voices of the Eighties.”[101] Like a Prayer peaked at primary on the Billboard 200 and bought 15 million copies worldwide.[59][102] Different profitable singles from the album have been “Categorical Your self” and “Cherish”, each peaked at quantity two within the US, in addition to the UK top-five “Pricey Jessie” and the U.S. top-ten “Preserve It Collectively”.[85][50] By the tip of the Nineteen Eighties, Madonna was named because the “Artist of the Decade” by MTV, Billboard and Musician journal.[103][104][105]

Madonna starred as Breathless Mahoney within the movie Dick Tracy (1990), with Warren Beatty taking part in the title position.[106] The movie went to primary on the U.S. field workplace for 2 weeks and Madonna acquired a Saturn Award nomination for Finest Actress.[107] To accompany the movie, she launched the soundtrack album, I am Breathless, which included songs impressed by the movie’s Nineteen Thirties setting. It additionally featured the U.S. number-one tune “Vogue” and “Sooner or Later”.[108][109] Whereas capturing the movie, Madonna started a relationship with Beatty, which dissolved shortly after the premiere.[110][111]

In April 1990, Madonna started her Blond Ambition World Tour, which resulted in August.[112] Rolling Stone known as it an “elaborately choreographed, sexually provocative extravaganza” and proclaimed it “the very best tour of 1990”.[113] The tour generated robust detrimental response from spiritual teams for her efficiency of “Like a Virgin”, throughout which two male dancers caressed her physique earlier than she simulated masturbation.[86] In response, Madonna mentioned, “The tour under no circumstances hurts anyone’s sentiments. It is for open minds and will get them to see sexuality differently. Their very own and others”.[114] The dwell recording of the tour received Madonna her first Grammy Award, within the class of Finest Lengthy Type Music Video.[115]

The Immaculate Assortment, Madonna’s first greatest-hits compilation album, was launched in November 1990. It included two new songs, “Justify My Love” and “Rescue Me”.[116] The album was licensed diamond by RIAA and bought over 31 million copies worldwide, turning into the best-selling compilation album by a solo artist in historical past.[117][118] “Justify My Love” reached primary within the U.S. turning into her ninth number-one[50] Her then-boyfriend mannequin Tony Ward co-starred within the music video, which featured scenes of sadomasochism, bondage, same-sex kissing, and transient nudity.[119][120] The video was deemed too sexually express for MTV and was banned from the community.[121] Her first documentary movie, Reality or Dare (often called In Mattress with Madonna exterior North America), was launched in Could 1991.[122] Chronicling her Blond Ambition World Tour, it turned the highest-grossing documentary of all time (surpassed eleven years later by Michael Moore’s Bowling for Columbine).[123]

1992–1997: Maverick, Erotica, Intercourse, Bedtime Tales, Evita, and motherhood

A woman with short blonde hair, wearing a green bra and purple pants, singing to a microphone, held in her left hand.

Madonna performing through the Girlie Present in September 1993

In 1992, Madonna starred in A League of Their Personal as Mae Mordabito, a baseball participant on an all-women’s crew. It reached primary on the box-office and have become the tenth-highest-grossing movie of the yr within the U.S.[124] She recorded the movie’s theme tune, “This Used to Be My Playground”, which turned her tenth Sizzling 100 number-one hit, probably the most by any feminine artist on the time.[50]

In April 1992, Madonna based her personal leisure firm, Maverick, consisting of a report firm (Maverick Information), a movie manufacturing firm (Maverick Movies), and related music publishing, tv broadcasting, e book publishing and merchandising divisions.[125] The deal was a three way partnership with Time Warner and paid Madonna an advance of $60 million. It gave her 20{ae90547d17d4d74b17007ee836a04674fd006933c139011dc78eb03c100070a7} royalties from the music proceedings, the best fee within the business on the time, equaled solely by Michael Jackson’s royalty fee established a yr earlier with Sony.[125] Her firm later went on to turn into one of the vital profitable artist-run labels in historical past, producing multi-platinum artists equivalent to Alanis Morissette and Michelle Department.[126][127] Later that yr, Madonna co-sponsored the primary retrospective for her former boyfriend Jean-Michel Basquiat on the Whitney Museum of American Artwork.[128][129]

In October 1992, Madonna concurrently launched her fifth studio album, Erotica, and her espresso desk e book, Intercourse.[130] Consisting of sexually provocative and express photos, photographed by Steven Meisel, the e book acquired robust detrimental response from the media and most of the people, however bought 1.5 million copies at $50 every in a matter of days.[131][132] The widespread backlash overshadowed Erotica, which ended up as her lowest promoting album on the time.[132] Regardless of constructive critiques, it turned her first studio album since her debut album to not rating any chart-topper within the U.S. The album entered the Billboard 200 at quantity two and yielded the Sizzling 100 top-ten hits “Erotica” and “Deeper and Deeper”.[59][50] Madonna continued her provocative imagery within the 1993 erotic thriller, Physique of Proof, a movie which contained scenes of sadomasochism and bondage. It was poorly acquired by critics.[133][134] She additionally starred within the movie Harmful Recreation, which was launched straight to video in North America. The New York Instances described the movie as “offended and painful, and the ache feels actual.”[135]

In September 1993, Madonna launched into the Girlie Present, by which she dressed as a whip-cracking dominatrix surrounded by topless dancers. In Puerto Rico she rubbed the island’s flag between her legs on stage, leading to outrage among the many viewers.[86] In March 1994, she appeared as a visitor on the Late Present with David Letterman, utilizing profanity that required censorship on tv, and handing Letterman a pair of her panties and asking him to odor it.[136] The releases of her sexually express e book, album and movie, and the aggressive look on Letterman all made critics query Madonna as a sexual renegade. Critics and followers reacted negatively, who commented that “she had gone too far” and that her profession was over.[137] Round this time, Madonna briefly dated basketball participant Dennis Rodman and rapper Tupac Shakur.[138][139][140]

Biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli described her ballad “I am going to Bear in mind” (1994) as an try and tone down her provocative picture. The tune was recorded for Alek Keshishian’s 1994 movie With Honors.[141] She made a subdued look with Letterman at an awards present and appeared on The Tonight Present with Jay Leno after realizing that she wanted to vary her musical route so as to maintain her reputation.[142] Together with her sixth studio album, Bedtime Tales (1994), Madonna employed a softer picture to attempt to enhance the general public notion.[142] The album debuted at quantity three on the Billboard 200 and generated two U.S. top-five hits, “Secret” and “Take a Bow”, the latter topping the Sizzling 100 for seven weeks, the longest interval of any Madonna single.[143] One thing to Bear in mind, a group of ballads, was launched in November 1995. The album featured three new songs: “You will See”, “One Extra Probability”, and a canopy of Marvin Gaye’s “I Need You”.[50][144]

An enthusiastic collector of contemporary artwork, Madonna sponsored the primary main retrospective of Tina Modotti’s work on the Philadelphia Museum of Artwork in 1995.[145] In 1996, she sponsored an exhibition of Basquiat’s work on the Serpentine Gallery in London.[146] The next yr, she sponsored artist Cindy Sherman’s retrospective on the MoMA in New York.[147]

That is the position I used to be born to play. I put every little thing of me into this as a result of it was far more than a job in a film. It was exhilarating and intimidating on the identical time. And I’m prouder of Evita than the rest I’ve completed.

—Madonna speaking about her position in Evita[148]

In February 1996, Madonna started filming the musical Evita in Argentina.[149] For a very long time, Madonna had desired to play Argentine political chief Eva Perón and wrote to director Alan Parker to clarify why she could be good for the half. After securing the title position, she acquired vocal teaching and realized concerning the historical past of Argentina and Perón. Throughout filming Madonna turned ailing a number of occasions, after discovering out that she was pregnant, and from the extraordinary emotional effort required with the scenes.[150] Upon Evitas launch in December 1996, Madonna’s efficiency acquired reward from movie critics.[151][152][153] Zach Conner of Time journal remarked, “It is a reduction to say that Evita is fairly rattling effective, effectively solid and handsomely visualized. Madonna as soon as once more confounds our expectations.”[154] For the position, she received the Golden Globe Award for Finest Actress in Movement Image Musical or Comedy.[155]

The Evita soundtrack, containing songs largely carried out by Madonna, was launched as a double album.[156] It included “You Should Love Me” and “Do not Cry for Me Argentina”; the latter reached primary in nations throughout Europe.[157] Madonna was offered with the Artist Achievement Award by Tony Bennett on the 1996 Billboard Music Awards.[158] On October 14, 1996, she gave start to Lourdes “Lola” Maria Ciccone Leon, her daughter with health coach Carlos Leon.[159][160] Biographer Mary Cross writes that though Madonna usually nervous that her being pregnant would hurt Evita, she reached some essential private objectives: “Now 38 years previous, Madonna had eventually triumphed on display and achieved her dream of getting a baby, each in the identical yr. She had reached one other turning level in her profession, reinventing herself and her picture with the general public.”[161] Her relationship with Carlos Leon resulted in Could 1997 and he or she declared that they have been “higher off as finest buddies”.[162][163]

1998–2002: Ray of Mild, Music, second marriage, and touring comeback

After Lourdes’s start, Madonna turned concerned in Jap mysticism and Kabbalah, launched to her by actress Sandra Bernhard.[164] Her seventh studio album, Ray of Mild, (1998) mirrored this modification in her notion and picture.[165][166] She collaborated with electronica producer William Orbit and wished to create a sound that might mix dance music with pop and British rock.[167] American music critic Ann Powers defined that what Madonna looked for with Orbit “was a sort of a lushness that she wished for this report. Techno and rave have been occurring within the 90s and had a number of totally different varieties. There was very experimental, extra exhausting stuff like Aphex Twin. There was celebration stuff like Fatboy Slim. That is not what Madonna wished for this. She wished one thing extra like a singer-songwriter, actually. And William Orbit offered her with that.”[167]

A blond woman sitting on a block of hay. She is playing a guitar and singing in front of a standing microphone. She has short hair and wears grey colored cowboy clothes.

Madonna performing throughout one of many dates of the Drowned World Tour in September 2001

The album garnered important acclaim, with Slant Journal calling it “one of many nice pop masterpieces of the ’90s”[168] Ray of Mild was honored with 4 Grammy Awards—together with Finest Pop Album and Finest Dance Recording—and was nominated for each Album of the 12 months and File of the 12 months.[169] Rolling Stone listed it amongst “The five hundred Biggest Albums of All Time”.[170] Commercially, the album peaked at number-one in quite a few nations and bought greater than 16 million copies worldwide.[171] The album’s lead single, “Frozen”, turned Madonna’s first single to debut at primary within the UK, whereas within the U.S. it turned her sixth number-two single, setting one other report for Madonna because the artist with probably the most number-two hits.[50][172] The second single, “Ray of Mild”, debuted at quantity 5 on the Billboard Sizzling 100.[173] The 1998 version of Guinness Guide of World Information documented that “no feminine artist has bought extra data than Madonna world wide”.[174]

Madonna based Ray of Mild Basis which targeted on girls, schooling, international improvement and humanitarian.[175] She recorded the only “Lovely Stranger” for the 1999 movie Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me, which earned her a Grammy Award for Finest Music Written for a Movement Image, Tv or Different Visible Media.[115] Madonna starred within the 2000 comedy-drama movie The Subsequent Finest Factor, directed by John Schlesinger. The movie opened at quantity two on the U.S. field workplace with $5.9 million grossed in its first week, however this rapidly diminished.[176] She additionally contributed two songs to the movie’s soundtrack—a canopy of Don McLean’s 1971 tune “American Pie” and an unique tune “Time Stood Nonetheless”—the previous turned her ninth UK number-one single.[177]

Madonna launched her eighth studio album, Music, in September 2000. It featured parts from the electronica-inspired Ray of Mild period, and like its predecessor, acquired acclaim from critics. Collaborating with French producer Mirwais Ahmadzaï, Madonna commented: “I like to work with the weirdos that nobody is aware of about—the individuals who have uncooked expertise and who’re making music not like anybody else on the market. Music is the way forward for sound.”[178] Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic felt that “Music blows by in a kaleidoscopic rush of shade, approach, model and substance. It has so many depth and layers that it is simply as self-aware and earnest as Ray of Mild.”[179] The album took the number-one place in additional than 20 nations worldwide and bought 4 million copies within the first ten days.[169] Within the U.S., Music debuted on the prime, and have become her first number-one album in eleven years since Like a Prayer.[180] It produced three singles: the Sizzling 100 number-one “Music”, “Do not Inform Me”, and “What It Feels Like for a Lady”.[50] The music video of “What It Feels Like for a Lady” depicted Madonna committing acts of crime and vandalism, and was banned by MTV and VH1.[181]

Madonna met director Man Ritchie in the summertime of 1998, and gave start to their son Rocco John Ritchie in Los Angeles on August 11, 2000.[182] Rocco and Madonna suffered issues from the start on account of her experiencing placenta praevia.[183] He was christened at Dornoch Cathedral in Dornoch, Scotland, on December 21, 2000.[184] Madonna married Ritchie the next day at close by Skibo Fort.[185][186] After an eight-year absence from touring, Madonna began her Drowned World Tour in June 2001.[86] The tour visited cities within the U.S. and Europe and was the highest-grossing live performance tour of the yr by a solo artist, incomes $75 million from 47 sold-out exhibits.[187] She additionally launched her second greatest-hits assortment, GHV2, which compiled 15 singles through the second decade of her recording profession. The album debuted at quantity seven on the Billboard 200 and bought seven million models worldwide.[188][189]

Madonna starred within the movie Swept Away, directed by Ritchie. Launched direct-to-video within the UK, the movie was a business and demanding failure.[190] In Could 2002 she appeared in London within the West Finish play Up For Grabs on the Wyndhams Theatre (billed as ‘Madonna Ritchie’), to universally unhealthy critiques and was described as “the night’s largest disappointment” by one.[191][192] That October, she launched “Die One other Day”, the title tune of the James Bond movie Die One other Day, by which she had a cameo position, described by Peter Bradshaw from The Guardian as “extremely picket”.[193] The tune reached quantity eight on the Billboard Sizzling 100 and was nominated for each a Golden Globe Award for Finest Unique Music and a Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Unique Music.[50]

2003–2006: American Life and Confessions on a Dance Ground

Madonna, wearing a military uniform, holds her arm to her head. She's flanked by several dancers wearing similar clothes

Madonna performing “American Life” through the Re-Invention World Tour, the highest-grossing tour of 2004

In 2003, Madonna collaborated with vogue photographer Steven Klein for an exhibition set up named X-STaTIC Professional=CeSS, which ran from March to Could in New York’s Deitch Tasks gallery and in addition traveled the world in an edited type.[194] The identical yr, Madonna launched her ninth studio album, American Life, which was primarily based on her observations of American society.[195] She defined that the report was “like a visit down reminiscence lane, trying again at every little thing I’ve completed and all of the issues I as soon as valued and all of the issues that have been essential to me.” Larry Flick from The Advocate felt that “American Life is an album that’s amongst her most adventurous and lyrically clever” whereas condemning it as “a lazy, half-arsed effort to sound and take her significantly.”[196][197] The unique music video of its title monitor brought on controversy on account of its violence and anti-war imagery, and was withdrawn after the 2003 invasion of Iraq began. Madonna voluntarily censored herself for the primary time in her profession as a result of political local weather of the nation, saying that “there was a lynch mob mentality that was occurring that wasn’t fairly and I’ve kids to guard.”[198] The tune stalled at quantity 37 on the Sizzling 100,[50] whereas the album turned her lowest-selling album at that time with 4 million copies worldwide.[199]

Madonna gave one other provocative efficiency later that yr on the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, when she kissed singers Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera whereas singing the monitor “Hollywood”.[200][201] In October 2003, she offered visitor vocals on Spears’ single “Me Towards the Music”.[202] It was adopted with the discharge of Remixed & Revisited. The EP contained remixed variations of songs from American Life and included “Your Honesty”, a beforehand unreleased monitor from the Bedtime Tales recording classes.[203] Madonna additionally signed a contract with Callaway Arts & Leisure to be the creator of 5 kids’s books. The primary of those books, titled The English Roses, was printed in September 2003. The story was about 4 English schoolgirls and their envy and jealousy of one another.[204] The e book debuted on the prime of The New York Instances Finest Vendor record and have become the fastest-selling kids’s image e book of all time.[205] Madonna donated all of its proceeds to a kids’s charity.[206]

The following yr Madonna and Maverick sued Warner Music Group and its former mother or father firm Time Warner, claiming that mismanagement of sources and poor bookkeeping had value the corporate hundreds of thousands of {dollars}. In return, Warner filed a countersuit alleging that Maverick had misplaced tens of hundreds of thousands of {dollars} by itself.[126][207] The dispute was resolved when the Maverick shares, owned by Madonna and Ronnie Dashev, have been bought by Warner. Madonna and Dashev’s firm turned an entirely owned subsidiary of Warner Music, however Madonna was nonetheless signed to Warner beneath a separate recording contract.[126]

In mid-2004, Madonna launched into the Re-Invention World Tour within the U.S., Canada, and Europe. It turned the highest-grossing tour of 2004, incomes round $120 million and have become the topic of her documentary I am Going to Inform You a Secret.[208][209] In November 2004, she was inducted into the UK Music Corridor of Fame as certainly one of its 5 founding members, together with The Beatles, Elvis Presley, Bob Marley, and U2.[210] Rolling Stone ranked her at quantity 36 on its particular situation of the 100 Biggest Artists of All Time, that includes an article about her written by Britney Spears.[211] In January 2005, Madonna carried out a canopy model of the John Lennon tune “Think about” at Tsunami Support.[212] She additionally carried out on the Dwell 8 profit live performance in London in July 2005.[213]

Once I wrote American Life, I used to be very agitated by what was occurring on the earth round me, […] I used to be offended. I had lots to get off my chest. I made a number of political statements. However now, I really feel that I simply need to have enjoyable; I need to dance; I need to really feel buoyant. And I need to give different individuals the identical feeling. There’s a number of insanity on the earth round us, and I would like individuals to be blissful.

—Madonna speaking about Confessions on a Dance Ground.[214]

Her tenth studio album, Confessions on a Dance Ground, was launched in November 2005. Musically the album was structured like a membership set composed by a DJ. It was acclaimed by critics, with Keith Caulfield from Billboard commenting that the album was a “welcome return to type for the Queen of Pop.”[215] The album received a Grammy Award for Finest Digital/Dance Album.[115] Confessions on a Dance Ground and its lead single, “Hung Up”, went on to achieve primary in 40 and 41 nations respectively, incomes a spot in Guinness World Information.[216] The tune contained a pattern of ABBA’s “Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)”, solely the second time that ABBA has allowed their work for use. ABBA songwriter Björn Ulvaeus remarked “It’s a fantastic monitor—100 per cent stable pop music.”[217] “Sorry”, the second single, turned Madonna’s twelfth number-one single within the UK.[68]

Madonna launched into the Confessions Tour in Could 2006, which had a worldwide viewers of 1.2 million and grossed over $193.7 million, turning into the highest-grossing tour to that date for a feminine artist.[218] Madonna used spiritual symbols, such because the crucifix and Crown of Thorns, within the efficiency of “Dwell to Inform”. It brought on the Russian Orthodox Church and the Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia to induce all their members to boycott her live performance.[219] On the identical time, the Worldwide Federation of the Phonographic Business (IFPI) introduced formally that Madonna had bought over 200 million copies of her albums alone worldwide.[220]

Whereas on tour Madonna based charitable group Elevating Malawi and partially funded an orphanage in and touring to that nation.[221] Whereas there, she determined to undertake a boy named David Banda in October 2006.[222] The adoption raised robust public response, as a result of Malawian legislation requires would-be mother and father to reside in Malawi for one yr earlier than adopting, which Madonna didn’t do.[223] She addressed this on The Oprah Winfrey Present, saying that there have been no written adoption legal guidelines in Malawi that regulated overseas adoption. Madonna described how Banda had been affected by pneumonia after surviving malaria and tuberculosis once they first met.[224] Banda’s organic father, Yohane, commented, “These so-called human rights activists are harassing me on daily basis, threatening me that I’m not conscious of what I’m doing … They need me to help their courtroom case, a factor I can’t do for I do know what I agreed with Madonna and her husband.” The adoption was finalized in Could 2008.[225][226]

2007–2011: Filmmaking, Onerous Sweet, and enterprise ventures

Madonna launched and carried out the tune “Hey You” on the London Dwell Earth live performance in July 2007.[227] She introduced her departure from Warner Bros. Information, and declared a brand new $120 million, ten-year 360 take care of Dwell Nation.[228] In 2008, Madonna produced and wrote I Am As a result of We Are, a documentary on the issues confronted by Malawians; it was directed by Nathan Rissman, who labored as Madonna’s gardener.[229] She additionally directed her first movie, Filth and Knowledge. The plot of the movie revolved round three buddies and their aspirations. The Instances mentioned she had “completed herself proud” whereas The Every day Telegraph described the movie as “not a completely unpromising first effort [but] Madonna would do effectively to hold on to her day job.”[230][231] On March 10, 2008, Madonna was inducted into the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame in her first yr of eligibility.[232] She didn’t sing on the ceremony however requested fellow Corridor of Fame inductees and Michigan natives the Stooges to carry out her songs “Burning Up” and “Ray of Mild”.[233]

Madonna launched her eleventh studio album, Onerous Sweet, in April 2008. Containing R&B and concrete pop influences, the songs on Onerous Sweet have been autobiographical in nature and noticed Madonna collaborating with Justin Timberlake, Timbaland, Pharrell Williams and Nate “Danja” Hills.[234] The album debuted at primary in 37 nations and on the Billboard 200.[235][236] Caryn Ganz from Rolling Stone complimented it as an “spectacular style of her upcoming tour”,[237] whereas BBC correspondent Mark Savage panned it as “an try and harness the city market”.[238]

Madonna playing electric guitar in front of a microphone

Madonna acting on the 2009 leg of the Sticky & Candy Tour, which was the second highest-grossing tour of all time

“4 Minutes” was launched because the album’s lead single and peaked at quantity three on the Billboard Sizzling 100. It was Madonna’s thirty seventh top-ten hit on the chart and pushed her previous Elvis Presley because the artist with probably the most top-ten hits.[239] Within the UK she retained her report for probably the most number-one singles for a feminine artist; “4 Minutes” turning into her thirteenth.[240] On the twenty third Japan Gold Disc Awards, Madonna acquired her fifth Artist of the 12 months trophy from Recording Business Affiliation of Japan, probably the most for any artist.[241] To additional promote the album, she launched into the Sticky & Candy Tour, her first main enterprise with Dwell Nation. With a complete gross of $408 million, it ended up because the second highest-grossing tour of all time, behind The Rolling Stones’s A Greater Bang Tour.[242] It remained the highest-grossing tour by a solo artist till Roger Waters’ the Wall Dwell surpassed it in 2013.[243]

Madonna in a black dress, smiling and looking down

Madonna on the premiere of W.E. on the 2011 Toronto Worldwide Movie Competition

In July 2008, Christopher Ciccone launched a e book titled Life with My Sister Madonna, which brought on a rift between Madonna and him, due to unsolicited publication.[244] By fall, Madonna filed for divorce from Ritchie, citing irreconcilable variations.[245] In December 2008, Madonna’s spokesperson introduced that Madonna had agreed to a divorce settlement with Ritchie, the phrases of which granted him between £50–60 million ($63.82–76.58 million), a determine that included the couple’s London pub and residence and Wiltshire property in England.[246] The wedding was dissolved by District Choose Reid by decree nisi on the scientific Principal Registry of the Household Division in Excessive Holborn, London. They entered a compromise settlement for Rocco and David, then aged eight and three respectively, and divided the kids’s time between Ritchie’s London dwelling and Madonna’s in New York, the place the 2 have been joined by Lourdes.[247][248] Quickly after, Madonna utilized to undertake Chifundo “Mercy” James from Malawi in Could 2009, however the nation’s Excessive Courtroom rejected the applying as a result of Madonna was not a resident there.[249] She re-appealed, and on June 12, 2009, the Supreme Courtroom of Malawi granted her the appropriate to undertake Mercy.[250]

Madonna concluded her contract with Warner by releasing her third greatest-hits album, Celebration, in September 2009. It contained the brand new songs “Celebration” and “Revolver” together with 34 hits spanning her musical profession with the label.[251] Celebration reached primary in a number of nations, together with Canada, Germany, Italy, and the UK.[252] She appeared on the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards to talk in tribute to deceased pop singer Michael Jackson.[253] Madonna ended the 2000s because the best-selling single artist of the last decade within the U.S. and the most-played artist of the last decade within the UK.[254][255] Billboard additionally introduced her because the third top-touring artist of the last decade—behind solely The Rolling Stones and U2—with a gross of over $801 million, 6.3 million attendance and 244 sell-outs of 248 exhibits.[256]

Madonna carried out on the Hope for Haiti Now: A World Profit for Earthquake Reduction live performance in January 2010.[257] Her third dwell album, Sticky & Candy Tour, was launched in April, debuting at quantity ten on the Billboard 200.[59] It additionally turned her twentieth top-ten on the Oricon Albums Chart, breaking The Beatles’ report for probably the most top-ten album by a global act in Japan.[258] Madonna granted American tv present, Glee, the rights to her total catalog of music, and the producers created an episode that includes her songs completely.[259] She additionally collaborated with Lourdes and launched the Materials Lady clothes line, impressed by her punk-girl model when she rose to fame within the Nineteen Eighties.[260] In October, she opened a collection of health facilities world wide named Onerous Sweet Health,[261] and three months later unveiled a second vogue model known as Reality or Dare which included footwear, perfumes, underclothing, and equipment.[262]

Madonna directed her second characteristic movie, W.E., a biographical account concerning the affair between King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson. Co-written with Alek Keshishian, the movie was premiered on the 68th Venice Worldwide Movie Competition in September 2011.[263] Crucial and business response to the movie was detrimental.[264][265] Madonna contributed the ballad “Masterpiece” for the movie’s soundtrack, which received her a Golden Globe Award for Finest Unique Music.[266]

2012–2017: Tremendous Bowl XLVI halftime present, MDNA, and Insurgent Coronary heart

Madonna performing through the Tremendous Bowl XLVI halftime present on February 5, 2012

In February 2012, Madonna headlined the Tremendous Bowl XLVI halftime present on the Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana.[267] Her efficiency was visualized by Cirque Du Soleil and Jamie King and featured particular friends LMFAO, Nicki Minaj, M.I.A. and CeeLo Inexperienced. It turned the then most-watched Tremendous Bowl halftime present in historical past with 114 million viewers, larger than the sport itself.[268] Throughout the occasion, she carried out “Give Me All Your Luvin'”, the lead single from her twelfth studio album, MDNA. It turned her record-extending thirty eighth top-ten single on the Billboard Sizzling 100.[269]

MDNA was launched in March 2012 and noticed collaboration with varied producers, together with William Orbit and Martin Solveig.[270] It was her first launch beneath her three-album take care of Interscope Information, which she signed as part of her 360 take care of Dwell Nation.[271] She was signed to the report label since Dwell Nation was unable to distribute music recordings.[272] MDNA turned Madonna’s fifth consecutive studio report to debut on the prime of the Billboard 200.[273] The album was largely promoted by the MDNA Tour, which lasted from Could to December 2012.[274] The tour featured controversial topics equivalent to violence, firearms, human rights, nudity and politics. With a gross of $305.2 million from 88 sold-out exhibits, it turned the highest-grossing tour of 2012 and then-tenth highest-grossing tour of all time.[275] Madonna was named the top-earning movie star of the yr by Forbes, incomes an estimated $125 million.[276]

Madonna collaborated with Steven Klein and directed a 17-minute movie, secretprojectrevolution, which was launched on BitTorrent in September 2013.[277] With the movie she launched the Artwork for Freedom initiative, which helped to advertise “artwork and free speech as a way to deal with persecution and injustice throughout the globe”. The web site for the mission included over 3,000 artwork associated submissions since its inception, with Madonna commonly monitoring and enlisting different artists like David Blaine and Katy Perry as visitor curators.[278]

By 2013, Madonna’s Elevating Malawi had constructed ten faculties to teach 4,000 kids in Malawi at a price of $400,000.[279] When Madonna visited the faculties in April 2013, President of Malawi Joyce Banda accused her of exaggerating the charity’s contribution.[280] Madonna was saddened by Banda’s assertion, however clarified that she had “no intention of being distracted by these ridiculous allegations”. It was later confirmed that Banda had not permitted the assertion launched by her press crew.[281] Madonna additionally visited her hometown Detroit throughout Could 2014 and donated funds to assist with town’s chapter.[282] The identical yr, her enterprise ventures prolonged to skincare merchandise with the launch of MDNA Pores and skin in Tokyo, Japan.[283]

Madonna’s thirteenth studio album, Insurgent Coronary heart, was launched in March 2015, three months after its 13 demos leaked onto the Web.[284] In contrast to her earlier efforts, which concerned only some individuals, Madonna labored with numerous collaborators, together with Avicii, Diplo and Kanye West.[285][286] Introspection was listed as one of many foundational themes prevalent on the report, together with “real statements of non-public and careerist reflection”.[287] Madonna defined to Jon Pareles of The New York Instances that though she has by no means appeared again at her previous endeavors, reminiscing about it felt proper for Insurgent Coronary heart.[288] Music critics responded positively in the direction of the album, calling it her finest effort in a decade.[289]

Madonna performing through the Insurgent Coronary heart Tour in 2015

From September 2015 to March 2016, Madonna launched into the Insurgent Coronary heart Tour to advertise the album. The tour traveled all through North America, Europe and Asia and was Madonna’s first go to to Australia in 23 years, the place she additionally carried out a one-off present for her followers.[290][291] Insurgent Coronary heart Tour grossed a complete of $169.8 million from the 82 exhibits, with over 1.045 million ticket gross sales.[292] Whereas on tour, Madonna turned engaged in a authorized battle with Ritchie, over the custody of their son Rocco. The dispute began when Rocco determined to proceed dwelling in England with Ritchie when the tour had visited there, whereas Madonna wished him to journey along with her. Courtroom hearings happened in each New York and London. After a number of deliberations, Madonna withdrew her utility for custody and determined to resolve the matter privately.[293]

In October 2016, Billboard named Madonna its Girl of the 12 months. Her “blunt and brutally trustworthy” speech about ageism and sexism on the ceremony acquired widespread protection within the media.[294][295] The following month Madonna, who actively supported Hillary Clinton through the 2016 U.S. presidential election, carried out an impromptu acoustic live performance at Washington Sq. Park in help of Clinton’s marketing campaign.[296] Upset that Donald Trump received the election, Madonna spoke out in opposition to him on the Girls’s March on Washington, a day after his inauguration.[297] She sparked controversy when she mentioned that she “thought lots about blowing up the White Home”.[298] The next day, Madonna asserted she was “not a violent particular person” and that her phrases had been “taken wildly out of context”.[299]

In February 2017, Madonna adopted four-year-old twin sisters from Malawi named Estere and Stella,[300][301] and he or she moved to dwell in Lisbon, Portugal in summer season 2017 along with her adoptive kids.[302] In July, she opened the Mercy James Institute for Pediatric Surgical procedure and Intensive Care in Malawi, a kids’s hospital constructed by her Elevating Malawi charity.[303] The dwell album chronicling the Insurgent Coronary heart Tour was launched in September 2017, and received Finest Music Video for Western Artists on the thirty second Japan Gold Disc Award.[304][305] That month, Madonna launched MDNA Pores and skin in choose shops in the US.[306] A couple of months earlier, the public sale home Gotta Have Rock and Roll had put up Madonna’s private gadgets like love letters from Tupac Shakur, cassettes, underwear and a hairbrush on the market. Darlene Lutz, an artwork supplier who had initiated the public sale, was sued by Madonna’s representatives to cease the proceedings. Madonna clarified that her movie star standing “doesn’t obviate my proper to keep up my privateness, together with with regard to extremely private gadgets”. Madonna misplaced the case and the presiding choose dominated in favor of Lutz who was in a position to show that in 2004 Madonna made a authorized settlement along with her for promoting the gadgets.[307]

2018–current: Madame X, catalog reissues, and autobiographical movie

Madonna through the world premiere of the music video for “Medellín” in April 2019

Whereas dwelling in Lisbon, Madonna met Dino D’Santiago, who launched her to many native musicians taking part in fado, morna, and samba music. They commonly invited her to their “lounge classes”, thus she was impressed to make her 14th studio album, Madame X.[308] Madonna produced the album with a number of musicians, primarily her longtime collaborator Mirwais and Mike Dean.[309] The album was critically effectively acquired, with NME deeming it “daring, weird, self-referential and in contrast to something Madonna has ever completed earlier than.”[310] Launched in June 2019, Madame X debuted atop the Billboard 200, turning into her ninth number-one album there.[311] All 4 of its singles—”Medellín”, “Crave”, “I Rise”, and “I Do not Search I Discover”—topped the Billboard Dance Membership Songs chart, extending her report for many number-one entries on the chart.[312]

Madonna appeared because the interval act on the Eurovision Music Contest in Could 2019; she carried out “Like a Prayer”, after which “Future” with rapper Quavo.[313] The Madame X Tour, an all-theatre tour in choose cities throughout North America and Europe, started on September 17, 2019. Along with a lot smaller venues in comparison with her earlier excursions, Madonna applied a no-phone coverage so as to maximize the intimacy of the live performance.[314] In keeping with Pollstar, the tour earned $51.4 million in ticket gross sales.[315] That December, she began relationship Ahlamalik Williams, a dancer who started accompanying her on the Insurgent Coronary heart Tour in 2015.[316][317] Nonetheless, the Madame X Tour confronted a number of cancellations on account of her recurring knee damage, and finally ended abruptly on March 8, 2020, three days earlier than its deliberate ultimate date, after the French authorities banned gatherings of greater than 1,000 individuals on account of COVID-19 pandemic.[318][319] Madonna later admitted that she examined constructive for coronavirus antibodies,[320] and donated $1 million to the Invoice & Melinda Gates Basis to assist fund analysis creating a brand new vaccine.[321]

Madonna and Missy Elliott offered visitor vocals on Dua Lipa’s single “Levitating”, from Lipa’s 2020 remix album Membership Future Nostalgia.[322] In August 2020, Madonna posted a video on her Instagram the place she discusses concepts for a script with author Diablo Cody.[323] The next month, she confirmed on an Instagram livestream they have been writing a movie about her life, to be produced by Amy Pascal.[324] In June 2021, Madonna introduced screenwriter Erin Wilson on board to assist with the script.[325] Madonna launched Madame X, a documentary movie chronicling the tour of the identical identify, on Paramount+ in October 2021.[326] On her 63rd birthday, she formally introduced her return to Warner in a worldwide partnership which grants the label her total recorded music catalog, together with the final three Interscope albums (that are in the end managed by Madonna’s firm Boy Toy, Inc. and have been solely licensed to Interscope by means of Dwell Nation). Below the contract, Madonna will launch a collection of catalog reissues starting in 2022, to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of her recording profession.[327]



In keeping with Taraborrelli, the dying of her mom had probably the most affect in shaping Madonna into the lady she would turn into. He believed that the devastation and abandonment Madonna felt on the lack of her mom taught her “a helpful lesson, that she must stay robust for herself as a result of, she feared weak point—significantly her personal.”[6] Writer Lucy O’Brien opines that the impression of the sexual assault Madonna suffered in her younger grownup years was the motivating issue behind every little thing she has completed, extra essential than the dying of her mom: “It is not a lot grief at her mom’s dying that drives her, because the sense of abandonment that left her unprotected. She encountered her personal worst doable situation, turning into a sufferer of male violence, and thereafter turned that full-tilt into her work, reversing the equation at each alternative.”[328]

Debbie Harry holding a standing microphone
Chrissie Hynde playing guitar onstage
Madonna was influenced by Debbie Harry (left) and Chrissie Hynde (proper), whom she known as “robust, impartial girls who wrote their very own music and advanced on their very own”.[329]

Madonna mentioned that the primary tune to ever make a robust impression on her was “These Boots Are Made for Walkin'” by Nancy Sinatra; she mentioned it summed up her personal “take-charge angle”.[330] As a younger girl, she tried to broaden her style in literature, artwork, and music, and through this time turned excited about classical music. She famous that her favourite model was baroque, and liked Mozart and Chopin as a result of she appreciated their “female high quality”.[331] Madonna’s main influences embrace Debbie Harry, Chrissie Hynde, Karen Carpenter, the Supremes and Led Zeppelin, in addition to dancers Martha Graham and Rudolf Nureyev.[329][332] She additionally grew up listening to David Bowie, whose present was the primary rock live performance she ever attended.[333]

Throughout her childhood, Madonna was impressed by actors, later saying, “I liked Carole Lombard and Judy Holliday and Marilyn Monroe. They have been all extremely humorous … and I noticed myself in them … my girlishness, my knowingness and my innocence.”[330] Her “Materials Lady” music video recreated Monroe’s look within the tune “Diamonds Are a Lady’s Finest Pal”, from the movie Gents Favor Blondes (1953). She studied the screwball comedies of the Nineteen Thirties, significantly these of Lombard, in preparation for the movie Who’s That Lady. The video for “Categorical Your self” (1989) was impressed by Fritz Lang’s silent movie Metropolis (1927). The video for “Vogue” recreated the model of Hollywood glamour images, particularly these by Horst P. Horst, and imitated the poses of Marlene Dietrich, Carole Lombard, and Rita Hayworth, whereas the lyrics referred to lots of the stars who had impressed her, together with Bette Davis, described by Madonna as an idol.[114][334]

Influences additionally got here to her from the artwork world, equivalent to by means of the works of Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.[335] The music video of the tune “Bedtime Story” featured photos impressed by the work of Kahlo and Remedios Varo.[336] Madonna can also be a collector of Tamara de Lempicka’s Artwork Deco work and has included them in her music movies and excursions.[337] Her video for “Hollywood” (2003) was an homage to the work of photographer Man Bourdin; Bourdin’s son subsequently filed a lawsuit for unauthorized use of his father’s work.[338] Pop artist Andy Warhol’s use of sadomasochistic imagery in his underground movies have been mirrored within the music movies for “Erotica” and “Deeper and Deeper”.[339]

Madonna’s Catholic background has been mirrored all through her profession, from her vogue use of rosary to her musical outputs, together with on Like a Prayer (1989).[340][341] Her album MDNA (2012) has additionally drawn many influences from her Catholic upbringing, and since 2011 she has been attending conferences and providers at an Opus Dei heart, a Catholic establishment that encourages spirituality by means of on a regular basis life.[342] In a 2016 interview, she commented: “I at all times really feel some sort of inexplicable reference to Catholicism. It sort of exhibits up in all of my work, as you will have seen.”[343] Her examine of the Kabbalah was additionally noticed in Madonna’s music, particularly albums like Ray of Mild and Music.[344] Talking of faith in a 2019 interview with Harry Smith of At present Madonna said, “The God that I imagine in, created the world […] He/Her/They [sic] is not a God to concern, it is a God to offer due to.” In an look on Andrew Denton’s Interview she added, “The concept in any church you go, you see a person on a cross and everybody genuflects and prays to him […] in a manner it is paganism/idolatry as a result of individuals are worshipping a factor.”[345][346]

Musical model and composition

[Madonna] is an excellent pop melodist and lyricist. I used to be knocked out by the standard of the writing [during Ray of Light sessions]… I do know she grew up on Joni Mitchell and Motown, and to my ears she embodies the very best of each worlds. She is a superb confessional songwriter, in addition to being an excellent hit refrain pop author.

—Rick Nowels, on co-writing with Madonna.[347]

Madonna’s music has been the topic of a lot evaluation and scrutiny. Robert M. Grant, creator of Modern Technique Evaluation (2005), commented that Madonna’s musical profession has been a steady experimentation with new musical concepts and new photos and a continuing quest for brand spanking new heights of fame and acclaim.[348] Thomas Harrison within the e book Pop Goes the Decade: The Eighties deemed Madonna “an artist who pushed the boundaries” of what a feminine singer may do, each visually and lyrically.[349] Professor Santiago Fouz-Hernández asserted, “Whereas not gifted with an particularly highly effective or wide-ranging voice, Madonna has labored to increase her creative palette to embody various musical, textual and visible types and varied vocal guises, all with the intention of presenting herself as a mature musician.”[350]

Madonna has remained in cost in each facet of her profession, together with as a author and producer in most of her personal music.[351][352] Her need for management had already been seen through the making of her debut album, the place she fought Reggie Lucas over his manufacturing output. Nonetheless, it was not till her third album that Warner allowed Madonna to supply her personal album.[353] Stan Hawkins, creator of Settling the Pop Rating defined, “it’s as musician and producer that Madonna is among the few feminine artists to have damaged into the male area of the recording studio. Undoubtedly, Madonna is totally conscious that ladies have been excluded from the musical office on most ranges, and has got down to change this.”[354] Producer Stuart Worth said: “You do not produce Madonna, you collaborate along with her… She has her imaginative and prescient and is aware of the way to get it.”[355] Regardless of being labeled a “management freak”, Madonna has mentioned that she valued enter from her collaborators.[356] She additional defined:

I prefer to have management over a lot of the issues in my profession however I am not a tyrant. I haven’t got to have it on my album that it is written, organized, produced, directed and stars Madonna. To me, to have whole management means you’ll be able to lose objectivity. What I like is to be surrounded by actually, proficient clever individuals you can belief. And ask them for his or her recommendation and get their enter.[357]

Madonna’s early songwriting ability was developed throughout her time with the Breakfast Membership in 1979.[358] She subsequently turned the only real author of 5 songs on her debut album, together with “Fortunate Star” which she composed on synthesizer.[359] As a songwriter, Madonna has registered greater than 300 tracks to ASCAP, together with 18 songs written solely by herself.[360] Rolling Stone has named her “an exemplary songwriter with a present for hooks and indelible lyrics.”[361] Regardless of having labored with producers throughout many genres, the journal famous that Madonna’s compositions have been “constantly stamped along with her personal sensibility and inflected with autobiographical element.”[362] Patrick Leonard, who co-wrote a lot of her hit songs, known as Madonna “a helluva songwriter”, explaining: “Her sensibility about melodic line—from the start of the verse to the tip of the verse and the way the verse and the refrain affect one another—could be very deep. Many occasions she’s singing notes that nobody would’ve considered however her.”[363] Barry Walters from Spin credited her songwriting as the explanation of her musical consistency.[364] Madonna has been nominated for being inducted into the Songwriters Corridor of Fame 3 times.[365] In 2015, Rolling Stone ranked Madonna at quantity 56 on the “100 Biggest Songwriters of All Time” record.[362]

Madonna’s discography is usually categorized as pop, electronica, and dance.[368][369] However, Madonna’s first foray into the music business was dabbling in rock music with Breakfast Membership and Emmy.[370] Because the frontwoman of Emmy, Madonna recorded about 12–14 songs that resemble the punk rock of that interval.[358] Madonna quickly deserted taking part in rock songs by the point she signed to Gotham Information, which finally dropped her since they have been sad along with her new funk route.[371] In keeping with Erlewine, Madonna started her profession as a disco diva, in an period that didn’t have any such divas to talk of. To start with of the Nineteen Eighties, disco was an anathema to the mainstream pop, and Madonna had an enormous position in popularizing dance music as mainstream music.[372] Arie Kaplan within the e book American Pop: Hit Makers, Superstars, and Dance Revolutionaries referred to Madonna as “a pioneer” of dance-pop.[373] In keeping with Fouz-Hernández, “Madonna’s frequent use of dance idioms and subsequent affiliation with homosexual or sexually liberated audiences, is seen as one way or the other inferior to ‘actual’ rock and roll. However Madonna’s music refuses to be outlined by slim boundaries of gender, sexuality or the rest.”[350]

The darkish ballad “Dwell to Inform”, in addition to its mother or father album True Blue (1986), is famous as Madonna’s first musical reinvention.[366] She continued producing confessional ballads in between her upbeat materials, though albums equivalent to Madonna (1983) and Confessions on a Dance Ground (2005) encompass solely dance tracks.[374][375] With Ray of Mild (1998), critics acknowledged Madonna for bringing electronica from its underground standing into an enormous reputation in mainstream music scene.[376] Her different sonically drastic ventures embrace the Nineteen Thirties big-band jazz on I am Breathless (1990);[377] lush R&B on Bedtime Tales (1994);[378] operatic present tunes on Evita (1996);[379] guitar-driven people music on American Life (2003);[380] in addition to multilingual world music on Madame X (2019).[381]

Voice and devices

Madonna in a silver dress, playing electric guitar

Madonna taking part in the guitar riff of “A New Degree” by heavy metallic band Pantera through the 2008 Sticky & Candy Tour[382]

Possessing a mezzo-soprano vocal vary,[383][384] Madonna has at all times been self-conscious about her voice.[385] Mark Bego, creator of Madonna: Blonde Ambition, known as her “the proper vocalist for lighter-than-air songs”, regardless of not being a “heavyweight expertise.”[386] In keeping with Tony Sclafani from MSNBC, “Madonna’s vocals are the important thing to her rock roots. Pop vocalists often sing songs “straight,” however Madonna employs subtext, irony, aggression and all kinds of vocal idiosyncrasies within the methods John Lennon and Bob Dylan did.”[370] Madonna used a vibrant, girlish vocal timbre in her early albums which turned passé in her later works. The change was deliberate since she was continually reminded of how the critics had as soon as labelled her as “Minnie Mouse on helium”.[385] Throughout the filming of Evita (1996), Madonna needed to take vocal classes, which elevated her vary additional. Of this expertise she commented, “I studied with a vocal coach for Evita and I spotted there was a complete piece of my voice I wasn’t utilizing. Earlier than, I simply believed I had a very restricted vary and was going to take advantage of it.”[367]

Apart from singing, Madonna has the flexibility to play a number of musical devices. Piano was the primary instrument taught to her as a baby.[28] Within the late Seventies, she realized to play drum and guitar from her then-boyfriend Dan Gilroy, earlier than becoming a member of the Breakfast Membership line-up because the drummer.[387] She later performed guitar with the band Emmy in addition to on her personal demo recordings.[388] After her profession breakthrough, Madonna was absent performing with guitar for years, however she is credited for enjoying cowbell on Madonna (1983) and synthesizer on Like a Prayer (1989).[352] In 1999, Madonna had studied for 3 months to play the violin for the position as a violin trainer within the movie Music of the Coronary heart, however she finally left the mission earlier than filming started.[389] Madonna determined to carry out with guitar once more through the promotion of Music (2000) and recruited guitarist Monte Pittman to assist enhance her ability.[390] Since then, Madonna has performed guitar on each tour, in addition to her studio albums.[352] She acquired a nomination for Les Paul Horizon Award on the 2002 Orville H. Gibson Guitar Awards.[391]

Music movies and performances

In The Madonna Companion biographers Allen Metz and Carol Benson famous that Madonna had used MTV and music movies to determine her reputation and improve her recorded work greater than another current pop artist.[392] In keeping with them, a lot of her songs have the imagery of the music video in robust context, whereas referring to the music. Cultural critic Mark C. Taylor in his e book Nots (1993) felt that the postmodern artwork type par excellence is video and the reigning “queen of video” is Madonna. He additional asserted that “probably the most exceptional creation of MTV is Madonna. The responses to Madonna’s excessively provocative movies have been predictably contradictory.”[393] The media and public response in the direction of her most-discussed songs equivalent to “Papa Do not Preach”, “Like a Prayer”, or “Justify My Love” needed to do with the music movies created to advertise the songs and their impression, quite than the songs themselves.[392] Morton felt that “artistically, Madonna’s songwriting is commonly overshadowed by her putting pop movies.”[394] In 2003, MTV named her “The Biggest Music Video Star Ever” and mentioned that “Madonna’s innovation, creativity and contribution to the music video artwork type is what received her the award.”[395][396] In 2020, Billboard ranked her atop the 100 Biggest Music Video Artists of All Time.[397]

Madonna dancing with a group of dancers wearing black outfits
Madonna in a jeweled black dress playing a ukulele while singing to a microphone
Madonna’s dwell performances range from choreographed routines equivalent to voguing (above) to stripped-down ones with solely a ukulele (beneath).

Madonna’s preliminary music movies mirrored her American and Hispanic blended road model mixed with a flamboyant glamor.[392] She was in a position to transmit her avant-garde downtown New York vogue sense to the American viewers.[398] The imagery and incorporation of Hispanic tradition and Catholic symbolism continued with the music movies from the True Blue period.[399] Writer Douglas Kellner famous, “such ‘multiculturalism’ and her culturally transgressive strikes turned out to be extremely profitable strikes that endeared her to giant and diversified youth audiences.”[400] Madonna’s Spanish look within the movies turned the style development of that point, within the type of boleros and layered skirts, accessorizing with rosary beads and a crucifix as within the video of “La Isla Bonita”.[401][402] Lecturers famous that along with her movies, Madonna was subtly reversing the standard position of male because the dominant intercourse.[403] This symbolism and imagery was in all probability probably the most prevalent within the music video for “Like a Prayer”. The video included scenes of an African-American church choir, Madonna being interested in a black saint statue, and singing in entrance of burning crosses.[404]

Madonna’s performing performances in movies have continuously acquired poor critiques from movie critics. Stephanie Zacharek said in Time that, “[Madonna] appears picket and unnatural as an actress, and it is powerful to look at, as a result of she’s clearly attempting her damnedest.” In keeping with biographer Andrew Morton, “Madonna places a courageous face on the criticism, however privately she is deeply harm.”[405] After the critically panned box-office bomb Swept Away (2002), Madonna vowed by no means to behave once more in a movie.[406][407] Whereas reviewing her profession retrospective titled Physique of Work (2016) at New York’s Metrograph corridor, The Guardians Nigel M. Smith wrote that Madonna’s movie profession suffered largely on account of lack of correct materials equipped to her, and he or she in any other case “may steal a scene for all the appropriate causes”.[408]

Metz famous that Madonna represents a paradox as she is commonly perceived as dwelling her entire life as a efficiency. Whereas her big-screen performances are panned, her dwell performances are important successes.[409] Madonna was the primary artist to have her live performance excursions as reenactment of her music movies. Writer Elin Diamond defined that reciprocally, the truth that photos from Madonna’s movies could be recreated in a dwell setting enhances the unique movies’ realism. She believed that “her dwell performances have turn into the means by which mediatized representations are naturalized”.[410] Taraborrelli mentioned that encompassing multimedia, newest know-how and sound programs, Madonna’s live shows and dwell performances are “extravagant present piece[s], [and] strolling artwork present[s].”[411]

Chris Nelson from The New York Instances commented that “artists like Madonna and Janet Jackson set new requirements for showmanship, with live shows that included not solely elaborate costumes and precision-timed pyrotechnics but in addition extremely athletic dancing. These results got here on the expense of dwell singing.”[412] Thor Christensen of The Dallas Morning Information commented that whereas Madonna earned a status for lip-syncing throughout her 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour, she has subsequently reorganized her performances by “keep[ing] largely nonetheless throughout her hardest singing elements and [leaves] the dance routines to her backup troupe … [r]ather than attempt to croon and dance up a storm on the identical time.”[413] To permit for larger motion whereas dancing and singing, Madonna was one of many earliest adopters of hands-free radio-frequency headset microphones, with the headset fixed over the ears or the highest of the pinnacle, and the microphone capsule on a increase arm that prolonged to the mouth. Due to her outstanding utilization, the microphone design got here to be often called the “Madonna mic”.[414][415]


Madonna has constructed a legacy that transcends music and has been studied by sociologists, historians and different students, contributing to the rise of Madonna research, a subfield of American cultural research.[416][417][418] In keeping with Rodrigo Fresán, “saying that Madonna is only a pop star is as inappropriate as saying that Coca-Cola is only a soda. Madonna is among the traditional symbols of Made in USA.”[419] Rolling Stone Spain wrote, “She turned the primary grasp of viral pop in historical past, years earlier than the web was massively used. Madonna was in every single place; within the almighty music tv channels, ‘radio formulation’, journal covers and even in bookstores. A pop dialectic, by no means seen for the reason that Beatles’s reign, which allowed her to maintain on the sting of development and commerciality.”[420] William Langley from The Every day Telegraph felt that “Madonna has modified the world’s social historical past, has completed extra issues as extra totally different individuals than anybody else is ever more likely to.”[421] Professor Diane Pecknold famous that “almost any ballot of the most important, biggest, or finest in in style tradition consists of [Madonna’s] identify”.[418] In 2012, VH1 ranked Madonna as the best girl in music.[422] In keeping with Acclaimed Music, which statistically aggregates a whole lot of critics’ lists, Madonna is probably the most acclaimed feminine musician of all time.[423]

A wax figure with a long ponytail and her large cone bra

Wax determine of Madonna at Madame Tussauds museum in Hong Kong

Spin author Bianca Gracie said that “the “Queen of Pop” is not sufficient to explain Madonna—she is Pop. [She] formulated the blueprint of what a pop star must be.”[424] In keeping with Sclafani, “It is value noting that earlier than Madonna, most music mega-stars have been man rockers; after her, virtually all could be feminine singers … When The Beatles hit America, they modified the paradigm of performer from solo act to band. Madonna modified it again—with an emphasis on the feminine.”[425] Howard Kramer, curatorial director of the Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame, asserted that “Madonna and the profession she carved out for herself made doable nearly each different feminine pop singer to observe … She actually raised the requirements of all of them … She redefined what the parameters have been for feminine performers.”[426] Andy Bennett and Steve Waksman, authors of The SAGE Handbook of Well-liked Music (2014), famous that “virtually all feminine pop stars of current years—Britney Spears, Beyoncé, Rihanna, Katy Perry, Woman Gaga, and others—acknowledge the essential affect of Madonna on their very own careers.”[368] Madonna has additionally influenced male artists, inspiring rock frontmen Liam Gallagher of Oasis and Chester Bennington of Linkin Park to turn into musicians.[427][428]

Madonna’s use of sexual imagery has benefited her profession and catalyzed public discourse on sexuality and feminism.[429] As Roger Chapman paperwork in Tradition Wars: An Encyclopedia of Points, Viewpoints, and Voices, Quantity 1 (2010), she has drawn frequent condemnation from spiritual organizations, social conservatives and parental watchdog teams for her use of express, sexual imagery and lyrics, spiritual symbolism, and in any other case “irreverent” conduct in her dwell performances.[430] The Instances wrote that she had “began a revolution amongst girls in music … Her attitudes and opinions on intercourse, nudity, model and sexuality pressured the general public to take a seat up and take discover.”[431] Professor John Fiske famous that the sense of empowerment that Madonna provides is inextricably related with the pleasure of exerting some management over the meanings of self, of sexuality, and of 1’s social relations.[432] In Doing Gender in Media, Artwork and Tradition (2009), the authors famous that Madonna, as a feminine movie star, performer, and pop icon, is ready to unsettle standing feminist reflections and debates.[433] In keeping with lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffreys, Madonna represents girl’s occupancy of what Monique Wittig calls the class of intercourse, as highly effective, and seems to gleefully embrace the efficiency of the sexual corvée allotted to girls.[434] Professor Sut Jhally has referred to Madonna as “an virtually sacred feminist icon.”[435]

Madonna has acquired acclaim as a job mannequin for businesswomen in her business, “reaching the sort of monetary management that ladies had lengthy fought for throughout the business”, and producing over $1.2 billion in gross sales throughout the first decade of her profession.[436] In keeping with Gini Gorlinski within the e book The 100 Most Influential Musicians of All Time (2010), Madonna’s ranges of energy and management have been “unprecedented” for a lady within the leisure business.[437] Professor Colin Barrow from Cranfield College of Administration described her as “America’s smartest businesswoman … who has moved to the highest of her business and stayed there by continually reinventing herself.”[438] London Enterprise College lecturers known as her a “dynamic entrepreneur” value copying; they recognized her imaginative and prescient of success, her understanding of the music business, her skill to acknowledge her personal efficiency limits (and thus usher in assist), her willingness to work exhausting and her skill to adapt because the keys to her business success.[439] Morton wrote that “Madonna is opportunistic, manipulative, and ruthless—someone who will not cease till she will get what she needs—and that is one thing you may get on the expense of perhaps shedding your shut ones. However that hardly mattered to her.”[440]

Awards and achievements

Madonna's handprints in concrete

Madonna was the primary particular person to be inducted into the Wembley Sq. of Fame in London, England.[441]

Madonna’s internet value is estimated between US$590 million to $800 million.[1][2] She has bought over 300 million data worldwide.[442][443] The Guinness World Information acknowledged her because the best-selling feminine music artist of all time.[444] In keeping with the Recording Business Affiliation of America (RIAA), she is the best-selling feminine rock artist of the twentieth century and the third highest-certified feminine albums artist in the US, with 64.5 million licensed album models.[445][446] She has probably the most RIAA multi-platinum albums by a feminine artist, with 12 releases (tying with Barbra Streisand).[447] Madonna is probably the most licensed artist of all time in United Kingdom, with 45 awards from the British Phonographic Business (BPI) as of April 2013.[448]

Madonna had generated over US$1.5 billion from ticket gross sales of her live performance excursions all through her profession.[449] In keeping with Billboard Boxscore, she is the highest-grossing solo touring artist of all time, grossing over $1.31 billion between 1990 and 2016, behind solely The Rolling Stones ($1.84 billion) and U2 ($1.67 billion).[292] Madonna additionally stays the one girl in historical past to have two solo live shows with 100,000 bought tickets; her Who’s That Lady World Tour’s live performance in Parc de Sceaux, Paris, drew over 130,000 viewers, whereas her Girlie Present’s live performance in Maracanã Stadium, Rio de Janeiro, drew over 120,000 viewers.[88][450] Madonna has additionally received seven Grammy Awards and twenty MTV Video Music Awards, together with the 1986 Video Vanguard Award for which she turned the primary feminine recipient.[451][452]

In keeping with Billboard, Madonna is probably the most profitable solo artist within the Sizzling 100 chart historical past (second total behind The Beatles) and probably the most profitable dance membership artist of all time.[453][454] With a complete of fifty Dance Membership Songs chart-toppers, Madonna turned the artist with probably the most quantity ones on any singular Billboard chart, pulling forward of George Strait with 44 number-one songs on the Sizzling Nation Songs chart.[312] She has additionally scored 38 top-ten singles on the Sizzling 100, greater than another feminine artist in historical past; she held the report amongst all artists for almost 20 years (between 2002 and 2020), earlier than being overtaken by Drake.[455][456] Internationally, Madonna holds the report for probably the most number-one singles by a feminine artist in Australia (11),[457] Canada (25),[458][459] Italy (23),[460][461] Eire (8),[462] Finland (7),[463] Spain (21),[464][465] and the UK (13).[466] On the fortieth anniversary of the GfK Media Management Charts, Madonna was ranked as probably the most profitable singles artist in German chart historical past.[467]


  • Madonna (1983)
  • Like a Virgin (1984)
  • True Blue (1986)
  • Like a Prayer (1989)
  • Erotica (1992)
  • Bedtime Tales (1994)
  • Ray of Mild (1998)
  • Music (2000)
  • American Life (2003)
  • Confessions on a Dance Ground (2005)
  • Onerous Sweet (2008)
  • MDNA (2012)
  • Insurgent Coronary heart (2015)
  • Madame X (2019)


Movies starred

  • A Sure Sacrifice (1979)
  • Desperately In search of Susan (1985)
  • Shanghai Shock (1986)
  • Who’s That Lady (1987)
  • Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989)
  • Dick Tracy (1990)
  • Madonna: Reality or Dare (1991)
  • A League of Their Personal (1992)
  • Physique of Proof (1993)
  • Harmful Recreation (1993)
  • 4 Rooms (1995)
  • Evita (1996)
  • The Subsequent Finest Factor (2000)
  • Swept Away (2002)
  • I am Going to Inform You a Secret (2005)
  • Arthur and the Invisibles (2006)
  • Madame X (2021)

Movies directed

  • Filth and Knowledge (2008)
  • W.E. (2011)


  • The Virgin Tour (1985)
  • Who’s That Lady World Tour (1987)
  • Blond Ambition World Tour (1990)
  • The Girlie Present (1993)
  • Drowned World Tour (2001)
  • Re-Invention World Tour (2004)
  • Confessions Tour (2006)
  • Sticky & Candy Tour (2008–2009)
  • The MDNA Tour (2012)
  • Insurgent Coronary heart Tour (2015–2016)
  • Madame X Tour (2019–2020)


  • Boy Toy, Inc
  • Webo Lady Publishing, Inc (1992)[468]
  • Maverick (1992–2004)
  • Ray of Mild Basis (1998)
  • Elevating Malawi (2006)
  • Onerous Sweet Health (2010)
  • Reality or Dare by Madonna (2011)

See additionally

  • Forbes Movie star 100
  • Record of celebrities who personal wineries and vineyards
  • Record of most costly divorces
  • Record of organisms named after well-known individuals (born 1950–current)
  • Record of Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame inductees
  • Record of best-selling feminine music artists

Guide sources

  • Aguilar Guzmán, Marcela (2010). Domadores de historias. Conversaciones con grandes cronistas de América Latina (in Spanish). RIL Editores. ISBN 978-956-284-782-7.
  • Bego, Mark (2000). Madonna: Blonde Ambition. Cooper Sq. Press. ISBN 978-0-8154-1051-5.
  • Bennett, Andy; Waksman, Steve (2014). The SAGE Handbook of Well-liked Music. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4739-1440-7.
  • Bohem, David A. (1990). Guinness World Information 1990. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8069-5791-3.
  • Bronson, Fred (2002). The Billboard Guide of Number one Hits. Billboard books. ISBN 978-0-8230-7677-2.
  • Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Information. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-0169-8.
  • Buikema, Rosemarie; van der Tuin, Iris (2009). Doing Gender in Media, Artwork and Tradition. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-87680-0.
  • Claro, Nicole (1994). Madonna. Chelsea Home Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-2330-3.
  • Clerk, Carol (2002). Madonnastyle. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-8874-3.
  • Cross, Mary (2007). Madonna: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33811-3.
  • Dean, Maury (2003). Rock ‘n’ Roll Gold Rush: A Singles Un-Cyclopedia. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-207-1.
  • Diamond, Elin (1996). Efficiency and Cultural Politics. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-12767-7.
  • Erlewine, Stephen Thomas; Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris (2002). AllMusic Information to Rock: The Definitive Information to Rock, Pop, and Soul. Hal Leonard Company. p. 1399. ISBN 978-0-87930-653-3.
  • Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Magnificence and Misogyny: Dangerous Cultural Practices In The West. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35183-6.
  • Fiske, John (1989). Studying the favored. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-07875-7.
  • Fouz-Hernández, Santiago; Jarman-Ivens, Freya (2004). Madonna’s Drowned Worlds. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3372-3.
  • Friskics-Warren, Invoice (2006). I am going to Take You There: Pop Music and the Urge for Transcendence. Continuum Worldwide Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-1921-7.
  • George-Warren, Holly; Romanowski, Patricia; Pareles, Jon, eds. (2001). The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Fireplace. ISBN 978-0-7432-0120-9.
  • Glenday, Craig (1998). Guinness World Information 1998. Jim Pattison Group. ISBN 978-0-85112-070-6.
  • Glenday, Craig (2007). Guinness World Information 2007. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-58992-4.
  • Gnojewski, Carol (2007). Madonna: Categorical Your self. Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-2442-7.
  • Gorlinski, Gini (2010). The 100 Most Influential Musicians of All Time. Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-61530-056-3.
  • Grant, Robert M. (2005). Modern Technique Evaluation. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-1999-3.
  • Guilbert, Georges-Claude (2002). Madonna as Postmodern Fantasy. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1408-6.
  • Guralnick, Peter; Wolk, Douglas (2000). Finest Music Writing. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80999-6.
  • Corridor, Dennis (2006). American Icons. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-02767-6.
  • Harrison, Thomas (2017). Pop Goes the Decade: The Eighties. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3667-1.
  • Hawkins, Stan (2017). Settling the Pop Rating: Pop Texts and Id Politics. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-54910-3.
  • Horton, Ros; Simmons, Sally (2007). Girls Who Modified the World. Quercus. ISBN 978-1-84724-026-2.
  • Jhally, Sut (2006). The Spectacle of Accumulation: Essays in Tradition, Media, And Politics. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-7904-0.
  • Kellner, Douglas (1995). Media Tradition: Cultural Research, Id, and Politics Between the Trendy and the Postmodern. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-10570-5.
  • Kramarae, Cheris; Spender, Dale (2000). Routledge Worldwide Encyclopedia of Girls: World Girls’s Points and Information. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92091-9.
  • Landrum, Gene N. (2007). Paranoia & Energy: Concern & Fame of Leisure Icons. Morgan James Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60037-273-5.
  • Leonard, George J.; D’Acierno, Pellegrino (1998). The Italian American Heritage: A Companion to Literature and Arts. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8153-0380-0.
  • McFarlan, Donald (1992). The Guinness Guide of Information 1992. ISBN 978-0-85112-378-3.
  • Metz, Allen; Benson, Carol (1999). The Madonna Companion: Two A long time of Commentary. Music Gross sales Group. ISBN 978-0-8256-7194-4.
  • Morton, Andrew (2001). Madonna. London: Michael O’Mara Books. ISBN 978-1-85479-888-6.
  • O’Brien, Lucy (2007). Madonna: Like an Icon. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-593-05547-2.
  • Pitts, Michael (2004). Well-known Film Detectives. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-3690-7.
  • Rettenmund, Matthew (1995). Madonnica: The Girl & The Icon From A To Z. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-11782-5.
  • Rooksby, Rikky (2004). The Full Information to the Music of Madonna. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-9883-4.
  • Michael, Mick St. (2004). Madonna speaking: Madonna in Her Personal Phrases. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84449-418-7.
  • Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
  • Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2002). Madonna: An Intimate Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2880-0.
  • Taylor, Mark C. (1993). Nots. College of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-79131-9.
  • Tetzlaff, David (1993). Metatextual Lady. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-1396-2.
  • Victor, Barbara (2001). Goddess, Inside Madonna. Cliff Avenue Books. ISBN 978-0-06-019930-2.
  • Voller, Debbie (1999). Madonna: The Model Guide. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-7511-8.
  • Welton, Donn (1998). Physique and Flesh: A Philosophical Reader. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-57718-126-2.
  • Zollo, Paul (2003), Songwriters on Songwriting, Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-81265-1

  • Official web site Edit this at Wikidata
  • Madonna at AllMovie
  • Madonna at AllMusic
  • Madonna at Curlie
  • Madonna at IMDb
  • “Madonna”. Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame. Edit this at Wikidata
  • Madonna on the TCM Film Database Edit this at Wikidata
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