Muddy Waters
Muddy Waters

McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1913 – April 30, 1983),[1][2] recognized professionally as Muddy Waters, was an American blues singer-songwriter and musician who was an necessary determine within the post-war blues scene, and is commonly cited because the “father of recent Chicago blues”.[3] His type of taking part in has been described as “raining down Delta beatitude”.[4]

Muddy Waters grew up on Stovall Plantation close to Clarksdale, Mississippi, and by age 17 was taking part in the guitar and the harmonica, emulating the native blues artists Son Home and Robert Johnson.[5] He was recorded in Mississippi by Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress in 1941.[6][7] In 1943, he moved to Chicago to turn into a full-time skilled musician. In 1946, he recorded his first data for Columbia Data after which for Aristocrat Data, a newly fashioned label run by the brothers Leonard and Phil Chess.

Within the early Nineteen Fifties, Muddy Waters and his band—Little Walter Jacobs on harmonica, Jimmy Rogers on guitar, Elga Edmonds (often known as Elgin Evans) on drums and Otis Spann on piano—recorded a number of blues classics, some with the bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon. These songs included “Hoochie Coochie Man,” “I Simply Wish to Make Like to You” and “I am Prepared”. In 1958, he traveled to England, laying the foundations of the resurgence of curiosity within the blues there. His efficiency on the Newport Jazz Competition in 1960 was recorded and launched as his first reside album, At Newport 1960.

Muddy Waters’ music has influenced numerous American music genres, together with rock and roll and rock music.

Formative years

Muddy Waters’s place and date of delivery should not conclusively recognized. He acknowledged that he was born in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, in 1915, however different proof means that he was born in Jug’s Nook, in neighboring Issaquena County, in 1913.[8] Within the Nineteen Thirties and Forties, earlier than his rise to fame, the yr of his delivery was reported as 1913 on his marriage license, recording notes, and musicians’ union card. A 1955 interview within the Chicago Defender is the earliest through which he acknowledged 1915 because the yr of his delivery, and he continued to say this in interviews from that time onward. The 1920 census lists him as 5 years outdated as of March 6, 1920, suggesting that his delivery yr could have been 1914. The Social Safety Dying Index, counting on the Social Safety card utility submitted after his transfer to Chicago within the mid-Forties, lists him as being born April 4, 1913. His headstone provides his delivery yr as 1915.[9]

His grandmother, Della Grant, raised him after his mom died shortly after his delivery. Grant gave him the nickname “Muddy” at an early age as a result of he cherished to play within the muddy water of close by Deer Creek.[10] “Waters” was added years later, as he started to play harmonica and carry out regionally in his early teenagers.[11] The stays of the cabin on Stovall Plantation the place he lived in his youth at the moment are on the Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale, Mississippi.[12][13]

He had his first introduction to music in church: “I used to belong to church. I used to be a very good Baptist, singing within the church. So I obtained all of my good moaning and trembling happening for me proper out of church,”[14] he recalled. By the point he was 17, he had bought his first guitar. “I offered the final horse that we had. Made about fifteen {dollars} for him, gave my grandmother seven {dollars} and fifty cents, I saved seven-fifty and paid about two-fifty for that guitar. It was a Stella. The folks ordered them from Sears-Roebuck in Chicago.”[14] He began taking part in his songs in joints close to his hometown, totally on a plantation owned by Colonel William Howard Stovall.[15]

Profession

Early profession, early Nineteen Thirties–1948

Within the early Nineteen Thirties, Muddy Waters accompanied Large Joe Williams on excursions of the Delta, taking part in harmonica. Williams recounted to Blewett Thomas that he finally dropped Muddy “as a result of he was takin’ away my ladies [fans]”.

In August 1941,[7] Alan Lomax went to Stovall, Mississippi, on behalf of the Library of Congress to file numerous nation blues musicians. “He introduced his stuff down and recorded me proper in my home,” Muddy instructed Rolling Stone journal, “and when he performed again the primary track I sounded similar to anyone’s data. Man, you do not know how I felt that Saturday afternoon once I heard that voice and it was my very own voice. Afterward he despatched me two copies of the urgent and a test for twenty bucks, and I carried that file as much as the nook and put it on the jukebox. Simply performed it and performed it and stated, ‘I can do it, I can do it’.”[6] Lomax got here again in July 1942 to file him once more. Each periods had been finally launched by Testomony Data as Down on Stovall’s Plantation.[16] The whole recordings had been reissued by Chess Data on CD as Muddy Waters: The Full Plantation Recordings. The Historic 1941–42 Library of Congress Discipline Recordings in 1993 and remastered in 1997.

In 1943, Muddy Waters headed to Chicago with the hope of turning into a full-time skilled musician. He later recalled arriving in Chicago as the only most momentous occasion in his life.[17] He lived with a relative for a brief interval whereas driving a truck and dealing in a manufacturing unit by day and acting at evening.[18] Large Invoice Broonzy, then one of many main bluesmen in Chicago, had Muddy open his reveals within the rowdy golf equipment the place Broonzy performed. This gave him the chance to play in entrance of a big viewers.[19] In 1944, he purchased his first electrical guitar after which fashioned his first electrical combo. He felt obliged to impress his sound in Chicago as a result of, he stated, “Once I went into the golf equipment, the very first thing I wished was an amplifier. Could not no person hear you with an acoustic.” His sound mirrored the optimism of postwar African Individuals. Willie Dixon stated that “There was fairly a couple of folks round singing the blues however most of them was singing all unhappy blues. Muddy was giving his blues a bit of pep.” [14]

In 1946, Muddy recorded some songs for Mayo Williams at Columbia Data, with an old school combo consisting of clarinet, saxophone and piano; they had been launched a yr later with Ivan Ballen’s Philadelphia-based twentieth Century label, billed as James “Candy Lucy” Carter and his Orchestra – Muddy Waters’ title was not talked about on the label.[20] Later that yr, he started recording for Aristocrat Data, a newly fashioned label run by the brothers Leonard and Phil Chess. In 1947, he performed guitar with Sunnyland Slim on piano on the cuts “Gypsy Lady” and “Little Anna Mae”. These had been additionally shelved, however in 1948, “I Cannot Be Happy” and “I Really feel Like Going Dwelling” turned hits, and his reputation in golf equipment started to take off.[21] Quickly after, Aristocrat modified its title to Chess Data. Muddy Waters’s signature tune “Rollin’ Stone” additionally turned a success that yr.

Business success, 1948–1957

Initially, the Chess brothers wouldn’t enable Muddy Waters to make use of his working band within the recording studio;[22] as an alternative, he was supplied with a backing bass by Ernest “Large” Crawford or by musicians assembled particularly for the recording session, together with “Child Face” Leroy Foster and Johnny Jones. Step by step, Chess relented, and by September 1953 he was recording with one of the vital acclaimed blues teams in historical past: Little Walter Jacobs on harmonica, Jimmy Rogers on guitar, Elga Edmonds (often known as Elgin Evans) on drums, and Otis Spann on piano.[23] The band recorded a collection of blues classics throughout the early Nineteen Fifties, some with the assistance of the bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon, together with “Hoochie Coochie Man”, “I Simply Wish to Make Like to You”, and “I am Prepared”

Muddy Waters’s band turned a proving floor for a number of the metropolis’s finest blues expertise,[24][better source needed] with members of the ensemble happening to profitable careers of their very own. In 1952, Little Walter left when his single “Juke” turned a success, though he continued a collaborative relationship lengthy after he left, showing on many of the band’s basic recordings within the Nineteen Fifties. Howlin’ Wolf moved to Chicago in 1954 with monetary help earned via his profitable Chess singles, and the “legendary rivalry” with Muddy Waters started. The rivalry was, partially, stoked by Willie Dixon offering songs to each artists, with Wolf suspecting that Muddy was getting Dixon’s finest songs.[25] 1955 noticed the departure of Jimmy Rogers, who stop to work completely along with his personal band, which had been a sideline till that point.

Within the mid-Nineteen Fifties, Muddy Waters’ singles had been often on Billboard journal’s numerous Rhythm & Blues charts[26][27] together with “Sugar Candy” in 1955 and “Hassle No Extra”, “Forty Days and Forty Nights”, and “Do not Go No Farther” in 1956.[28] 1956 additionally noticed the discharge of considered one of his best-known numbers, “Received My Mojo Working”, though it didn’t seem on the charts.[29] Nevertheless, by the late Nineteen Fifties, his singles success had come to an finish, with solely “Near You” reaching the chart in 1958.[29] Additionally in 1958, Chess launched his first compilation album, The Better of Muddy Waters, which collected twelve of his singles as much as 1956.[30]

Performances and crossover, 1958–1970

Muddy Waters toured England with Spann in 1958, the place they had been backed by native Dixieland-style or “trad jazz” musicians, together with members of Chris Barber’s band.[31] On the time, English audiences had solely been uncovered to acoustic folks blues, as carried out by artists equivalent to Sonny Terry, Brownie McGhee, and Large Invoice Broonzy.[31] Each the musicians and audiences had been unprepared for Waters’ efficiency, which included his electrical slide guitar taking part in.[31] He recalled:

They thought I used to be a Large Invoice Broonzy [but] I wasn’t. I had my amplifier and Spann and I used to be going to do a Chicago factor. We opened up in Leeds, England. I used to be undoubtedly too loud for them. The following morning we had been within the headlines of the paper, ‘Screaming Guitar and Howling Piano’.[31]

Though his performances alienated the outdated guard, some youthful musicians, together with Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies from Barber’s band, had been impressed to go within the extra fashionable, electrical blues path.[32] Korner and Davies’ personal teams included musicians who would later kind The Rolling Stones (named after Muddy’s 1950 hit “Rollin’ Stone”), Cream, and the unique Fleetwood Mac.[32]

Within the Nineteen Sixties, Muddy Waters’ performances continued to introduce a brand new era to Chicago blues.[33] On the Newport Jazz Competition, he recorded one of many first reside blues albums, At Newport 1960, and his efficiency of “Received My Mojo Working” was nominated for a Grammy award.[34] In September 1963, in Chess’ try to attach with folks music audiences, he recorded Folks Singer, which changed his trademark electrical guitar sound with an acoustic band, together with a then-unknown Buddy Man on acoustic guitar.[35] Folks Singer was not a industrial success, however it was lauded by critics, and in 2003 Rolling Stone journal positioned it at quantity 280 on its listing of the five hundred best albums of all time.[36] In October 1963, Muddy Waters participated within the first of a number of annual European excursions, organized because the American Folks Blues Competition, throughout which he additionally carried out extra acoustic-oriented numbers.[37]

In 1967, he re-recorded a number of blues requirements with Bo Diddley, Little Walter, and Howlin’ Wolf, which had been marketed as Tremendous Blues and The Tremendous Tremendous Blues Band albums in Chess’ try to succeed in a rock viewers.[38] The Tremendous Tremendous Blues Band united Wolf and Waters, who had a long-standing rivalry.[25] It was, as Ken Chang wrote in his AllMusic assessment, flooded with “contentious studio banter […] extra entertaining than the in any other case unmemorable music from this stylistic prepare wreck”.[39][better source needed] In 1968, on the instigation of Marshall Chess, he recorded Electrical Mud, an album supposed to revive his profession by backing him with Rotary Connection, a psychedelic soul band that Chess had put collectively.[40] The album proved controversial; though it reached quantity 127 on the Billboard 200 album chart, it was scorned by many critics, and finally disowned by Muddy Waters himself:

That Electrical Mud file I did, that one was dogshit. However when it first got here out, it began promoting like wild, after which they began sending them again. They stated, “This cannot be Muddy Waters with all this shit happening – all this wow-wow and fuzztone.”[41]

Nonetheless, six months later he recorded a follow-up album, After the Rain, which had an analogous sound and featured most of the similar musicians.[42][better source needed]

Later in 1969, he recorded and launched the album Fathers and Sons, which featured a return to his basic Chicago blues sound. Fathers and Sons had an all-star backing band that included Michael Bloomfield and Paul Butterfield, longtime followers whose need to play with him was the impetus for the album.[43] It was probably the most profitable album of Muddy Waters’ profession, reaching quantity 70 on the Billboard 200.[citation needed]

Resurgence and later profession, 1971–1982

In 1971, a present at Mister Kelly’s, an upmarket Chicago nightclub, was recorded and launched, signalling each Muddy Waters’s return to kind and the completion of his switch to white audiences.

In 1972, he gained his first Grammy Award, for Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Recording for They Name Me Muddy Waters, a 1971 album of outdated, however beforehand unreleased recordings.

Later in 1972, he flew to England to file the album The London Muddy Waters Periods. The album was a follow-up to the earlier yr’s The London Howlin’ Wolf Periods. Each albums had been the brainchild of Chess Data producer Norman Dayron, and had been supposed to showcase Chicago blues musicians taking part in with the youthful British rock musicians whom that they had impressed. Muddy Waters introduced with him two American musicians, harmonica participant Carey Bell and guitarist Sammy Lawhorn. The British and Irish musicians who performed on the album included Rory Gallagher, Steve Winwood, Rick Grech, and Mitch Mitchell. Muddy was dissatisfied by the outcomes, as a result of British musicians’ extra rock-oriented sound. “These boys are high musicians, they’ll play with me, put the e book earlier than ’em and play it, ,” he instructed Guralnick. “However that ain’t what I have to promote my folks, it ain’t the Muddy Waters sound. An’ when you change my sound, then you definitely gonna change the entire man.” He acknowledged, “My blues look so easy, really easy to do, however it’s not. They are saying my blues is the toughest blues on this planet to play.”[44] Nonetheless, the album gained one other Grammy, once more for Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Recording.

He gained one other Grammy for his final LP on Chess Data: The Muddy Waters Woodstock Album, recorded in 1975 along with his new guitarist Bob Margolin, Pinetop Perkins, Paul Butterfield, and Levon Helm and Garth Hudson of the Band.[45] In November 1976 he appeared as a featured particular visitor at The Band’s Final Waltz farewell live performance, and within the subsequent 1978 function movie documentary of the occasion.

From 1977 to 1981, blues musician Johnny Winter, who had idolized Muddy Waters since childhood and who had turn into a pal,[46][47] produced 4 albums of his, all on the Blue Sky Data label: the studio albums Laborious Once more (1977), I am Prepared (1978) and King Bee (1981), and the reside album Muddy “Mississippi” Waters – Dwell (1979). The albums had been crucial and industrial successes, with all however King Bee profitable a Grammy. Laborious Once more has been particularly praised by critics, who’ve tended to explain it as his comeback album.[48][49]

In 1981, Muddy Waters was invited to carry out at ChicagoFest, town’s high out of doors music pageant. He was joined onstage by Johnny Winter and Buddy Miles, and performed classics like “Mannish Boy”, “Hassle No Extra”, and “Mojo Working” to a brand new era of followers. The efficiency was made obtainable on DVD in 2009 by Shout! Manufacturing unit. On November 22, he carried out reside with three members of British rock band The Rolling Stones (Mick Jagger, Keith Richards and Ronnie Wooden) on the Checkerboard Lounge, a blues membership in Bronzeville, on the South Facet of Chicago, which was established in 1972 by Buddy Man and L.C. Thurman.[50][51] A DVD model of the efficiency was launched in 2012.[52][better source needed]

In 1982, declining well being dramatically stopped his efficiency schedule. His final public efficiency happened when he sat in with Eric Clapton’s band at a live performance in Florida in the summertime of 1982.[53]

Private life

Muddy Waters’ longtime companion, Geneva Wade, died of most cancers on March 15, 1973. Gaining custody of his three kids, Joseph, Renee, and Rosalind, he moved them into his residence, finally shopping for a brand new home in Westmont, Illinois. Years later, he traveled to Florida and met his future spouse, 19-year-old Marva Jean Brooks, whom he nicknamed “Sunshine”.[54] Eric Clapton served as finest man at their wedding ceremony in 1979.[55]

His sons, Larry “Mud” Morganfield and Large Invoice Morganfield, are additionally blues singers and musicians. In 2017 his youngest son, Joseph “Mojo” Morganfield, started publicly performing the blues. Joseph was recognized to play sometimes along with his brothers.[56] Mojo died in 2020 on the age of 56.[57]

Dying

The cemetery plot of Waters beneath his actual title, McKinley Morganfield, in Restvale Cemetery, Alsip, Illinois

Muddy Waters died in his sleep from coronary heart failure, at his residence in Westmont, Illinois, on April 30, 1983, from cancer-related problems.[58] He was taken from his Westmont residence, which he lived in for the final decade of his life, to Good Samaritan Hospital in Downers Grove, Illinois,[59] the place he was pronounced useless aged 70. His funeral was held on Might 4, 1983. Throngs of blues musicians and followers attended his funeral at Restvale Cemetery in Alsip, Illinois. He’s buried subsequent to his spouse, Geneva.

After his dying, a prolonged court docket battle ensued between his heirs and Scott Cameron, his former supervisor. In 2010, his inheritor was petitioning for the courts to nominate Mercy Morganfield, his daughter, as administrator and distribute remaining belongings, which primarily consists of copyrights to his music.[59] The petition to reopen the property was profitable. In Might 2018, the heirs’ lawyer sought to carry Scott Cameron’s spouse in contempt for diverting royalty earnings. Nevertheless, the heirs requested for that quotation to not be pursued. The following court docket date was set for July 10, 2018.[60]

Legacy

Two years after his dying, town of Chicago paid tribute to him by designating the one-block part between 900 and 1000 East forty third Road close to his former residence on the south aspect “Honorary Muddy Waters Drive”.[61] In 2017, a ten stories-mural commissioned as part of the Chicago Blues Competition and designed by Brazilian artist Eduardo Kobra was painted on the aspect of the constructing at 17 North State Road, on the nook of State and Washington Streets.[62] The Chicago suburb of Westmont, the place he lived the final decade of his life, named a bit of Cass Avenue close to his residence “Honorary Muddy Waters Manner”.

In 2008, a Mississippi Blues Path marker has been positioned in Clarksdale, Mississippi, by the Mississippi Blues Fee designating the positioning of Muddy Waters’ cabin.[63] He additionally acquired a plaque on the Clarksdale Stroll of Fame.[64]

Muddy Waters’ Chicago Dwelling within the Kenwood neighborhood is within the means of being named a Chicago Landmark.[65]

Affect

The British band The Rolling Stones named themselves after Muddy Waters’ 1950 track “Rollin’ Stone”. Jimi Hendrix recalled that “I first heard him as a bit of boy and it scared me to dying”. The band Cream coated “Rollin’ and Tumblin'” on their 1966 debut album, Recent Cream. Eric Clapton was an enormous fan of Muddy Waters whereas rising up, and his music influenced Clapton’s music profession. The track was additionally coated by Canned Warmth on the Monterey Pop Competition and later tailored by Bob Dylan on his album Fashionable Occasions. One in all Led Zeppelin’s largest hits, “Entire Lotta Love”, has its lyrics closely influenced by the Muddy Waters hit “You Want Love” (written by Willie Dixon). “Hoochie Coochie Man”, was coated by Allman Brothers Band, Humble Pie, Steppenwolf, Supertramp and Concern. In 1993, Paul Rodgers launched the album Muddy Water Blues: A Tribute to Muddy Waters, on which he coated a lot of his songs, together with “Louisiana Blues”, “Rollin’ Stone”, “(I am your) Hoochie Coochie Man” and “I am Prepared” in collaboration with guitarists equivalent to Gary Moore, Brian Might and Jeff Beck. Angus Younger, of the rock group AC/DC, has cited Muddy as considered one of his influences. The AC/DC track title “You Shook Me All Evening Lengthy” got here from lyrics of the Muddy Waters track “You Shook Me”, written by Willie Dixon and J. B. Lenoir. Earl Hooker first recorded it as an instrumental, which was then overdubbed with vocals by Muddy Waters in 1962. Led Zeppelin additionally coated it on their debut album.[citation needed]

In 1981 ZZ High guitarist Billy Gibbons went to go to the Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale with The Blues journal founder Jim O’Neal. The museum’s director, Sid Graves, introduced Gibbons to go to Waters unique home, and inspired him to choose up a bit of scrap lumber that was initially a part of the roof. Gibbons finally transformed the wooden right into a guitar. Named Muddywood, the instrument is now exhibited on the Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale.[66]

Following his dying, fellow blues musician B.B. King instructed Guitar World journal, “It may be years and years earlier than most individuals understand how enormously he contributed to American music.” John P. Hammond instructed Guitar World journal, “Muddy was a grasp of simply the proper notes. It was profound guitar taking part in, deep and easy … extra nation blues transposed to the electrical guitar, the type of taking part in that enhanced the lyrics, gave profundity to the phrases themselves.”[67]

Muddy Waters’ songs have been featured in long-time fan Martin Scorsese’s films, together with The Shade of Cash, Goodfellas, and On line casino. A Nineteen Seventies recording of his mid-’50s hit “Mannish Boy” was used within the movies Goodfellas, Higher Off Lifeless, Dangerous Enterprise, and the rockumentary The Final Waltz. In 1988 “Mannish Boy” was additionally utilized in a Levi’s 501 industrial and re-released in Europe as a single with “(I am your) Hoochie Coochie Man” on the flip aspect.

Awards and recognition

Grammy Awards

Muddy Waters Grammy Award Historical past[68]
12 months Class Title Style Label Outcome
1972 Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Folks Recording They Name Me Muddy Waters folks MCA/Chess winner
1973 Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Folks Recording The London Muddy Waters Periods folks MCA/Chess winner
1975 Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Folks Recording The Muddy Waters Woodstock Album folks MCA/Chess winner
1978 Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Folks Recording Laborious Once more folks Blue Sky winner
1979 Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Folks Recording I am Prepared folks Blue Sky winner
1980 Greatest Ethnic or Conventional Folks Recording Muddy “Mississippi” Waters Dwell folks Blue Sky winner

Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame

The Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame listed 4 songs of Muddy Waters among the many 500 Songs That Formed Rock and Roll.[69]

12 months recorded Title
1950 “Rollin’ Stone”
1954 “Hoochie Coochie Man”
1955 “Mannish Boy”
1957 “Received My Mojo Working”

Blues Basis Awards

Muddy Waters: Blues Music Awards[70]
12 months Class Title Outcome
1994 Reissue Album of the 12 months The Full Plantation Recordings Winner
1995 Reissue Album of the 12 months One Extra Mile Winner
2000 Conventional Blues Album of the 12 months The Misplaced Tapes of Muddy Waters Winner
2002 Historic Blues Album of the 12 months Fathers and Sons Winner
2006 Historic Album of the 12 months Hoochie Coochie Man: Full Chess Recordings, Quantity 2, 1952–1958 Winner

Inductions

12 months Inducted Title
1980 Blues Basis Corridor of Fame
1987 Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame
1992 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award

U.S. Postage Stamp

12 months Stamp USA Be aware
1994 29-cent commemorative stamp U.S. Postal Service Picture[71]

Discography

Studio albums

  • Muddy Waters Sings “Large Invoice” (Chess, 1960)
  • Folks Singer (Chess, 1964)
  • Muddy, Brass & the Blues (Chess, 1966)
  • Electrical Mud (Cadet, 1968)
  • After the Rain (Cadet, 1969)
  • Fathers and Sons (Chess, 1969)
  • The London Muddy Waters Periods (Chess, 1972)
  • Cannot Get No Grindin’ (Chess, 1973)
  • Mud in Your Ear (Muse, 1973)
  • London Revisited (Chess, 1974) cut up album with Howlin’ Wolf
  • “Unk” in Funk (Chess, 1974)
  • The Muddy Waters Woodstock Album (Chess, 1975)
  • Laborious Once more (Blue Sky, 1977)
  • I am Prepared (Blue Sky, 1978)
  • King Bee (Blue Sky, 1981)

Notes

  • Dahl, Invoice (1996). “Muddy Waters”. In Erlewine, Michael (ed.). All Music Information to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.
  • Dixon, Willie; Snowden, Don (1989). I Am the Blues. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80415-8.
  • Gillett, Charlie (1972). The Sound of the Metropolis (2nd. Laurel printing 1973 ed.). New York Metropolis: Dell Publishing.
  • Gioia, Ted (2008). Delta Blues (Norton Paperback 2009 ed.). New York Metropolis: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-33750-1.
  • Gordon, Robert (2002). Cannot Be Happy: The Life and Occasions of Muddy Waters. New York Metropolis: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-32849-9.
  • Herzhaft, Gerard (1992). “Muddy Waters”. Encyclopedia of the Blues. Fayetteville, Arkansas: College of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-252-8.
  • O’Neal, Jim; van Singel, Amy (2002). The Voice of the Blues: Basic Interviews from Residing Blues Journal. Oxford, Mississippi: Routledge. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-415-93654-5.
  • Palmer, Robert (1982). Deep Blues. New York Metropolis: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14006-223-8.
  • Palmer, Robert (1989). Muddy Waters: Chess Field (boxed set booklet). Muddy Waters. Common Metropolis, California: Chess Data/MCA Data. OCLC 154264537. CHD3-80002.
  • Szatmary, David P. (2014). Rockin’ in Time: A Social Historical past of Rock-and-Roll. Higher Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Training. ISBN 978-0205675043.
  • Wald, Elijah (2004). Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues (1st. ed.). New York Metropolis: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060524272.
  • Whitburn, Joel (1988). High R&B Singles 1942–1988. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: File Analysis. ISBN 0-89820-068-7.
  • Wight, Phil; Rothwell, Fred (1991). “The Full Muddy Waters Discography”. Blues & Rhythm. England (200).

  • “Muddy Waters”. Rock and Roll Corridor of Fame. Edit this at Wikidata
  • Muddy Waters at IMDb
  • Muddy Waters at Discover a Grave


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