Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Prince Andrew, Duke of York, KG, GCVO, CD (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal household. The third youngster and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, he’s ninth within the line of succession to the British throne.

Andrew served within the Royal Navy as a helicopter pilot and teacher and because the captain of a warship. In the course of the Falklands Struggle, he flew on a number of missions together with anti-surface warfare, casualty evacuation, and Exocet missile decoy. In 1986, he married Sarah Ferguson and was created Duke of York. They’ve two daughters, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie. Their marriage, separation in 1992, and divorce in 1996 attracted in depth media protection. Andrew served because the UK’s Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding for 10 years till July 2011.

Andrew has been accused of kid sexual abuse by Virginia Giuffre, who alleges that as a minor she was intercourse trafficked to him by American financier and convicted intercourse offender Jeffrey Epstein,[2] which Andrew has categorically denied.[3] Following intense detrimental response to his connections to Epstein, he completely resigned from public roles in Might 2020,[4] and his honorary army affiliations and royal charitable patronages have been returned to the Queen in January 2022.[5][6] He was the defendant in a civil lawsuit over sexual assault filed by Giuffre in New York State, which was settled out of courtroom in February 2022.[7]

Formative years

Gordonstoun college in Scotland

Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward on the opening of the 1978 Commonwealth Video games in Edmonton, Alberta

Andrew was born within the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960,[8] the third youngster and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He was baptised within the palace’s Music Room on 8 April 1960.[9]

Andrew was the primary youngster born to a reigning monarch because the beginning in 1857 of Queen Victoria’s youngest youngster, Princess Beatrice.[10] As together with his older siblings, Andrew was taken care of by a governess, who was chargeable for his early training at Buckingham Palace.[11] He was despatched to Heatherdown College close to Ascot in Berkshire.[12] In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had additionally attended.[13] Whereas there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—taking part in an alternate programme to Lakefield Faculty College in Canada.[12][14] He left Gordonstoun in July two years later with A-Ranges[14] in English, Historical past, and Economics.[15]

Navy service

Royal Navy

The Royal Family introduced in November 1978 that Andrew would be a part of the Royal Navy the next 12 months. In December, he underwent varied sporting assessments and examinations on the Aircrew Choice Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, together with additional assessments and interviews at HMS Daedalus, and interviews on the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. Throughout March and April 1979, he was enrolled on the Royal Naval Faculty Flight, present process pilot coaching, till he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 Might 1979. On 1 September of the identical 12 months, Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval Faculty, Dartmouth. Throughout 1979 he additionally accomplished the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course for which he obtained his Inexperienced Beret.[16] He was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant on 1 September 1981 and appointed to the Skilled Energy on 22 October.[17]

After passing out from Dartmouth, Andrew went on to elementary flying coaching with the Royal Air Power at RAF Leeming, and later, fundamental flying coaching with the navy at HMS Seahawk, the place he realized to fly the Gazelle helicopter.[16] After being awarded his wings, he moved onto extra superior coaching on the Sea King helicopter, and carried out operational flying coaching till 1982. He joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the plane service, HMS Invincible.[16]

Falklands Struggle

On 2 April 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a British abroad territory claimed by it, resulting in the Falklands Struggle.[18] Invincible was one of many two operational plane carriers accessible on the time, and, as such, was to play a significant position within the Royal Navy process power assembled to sail south to retake the islands.[19]

Prince Andrew’s place on board and the potential for the Queen’s son being killed in motion made the British authorities apprehensive, and the cupboard desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job all through the battle. The Queen, although, insisted that her son be allowed to stay together with his ship.[20] Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to function a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, transport, and search and air rescue.[21][22][23] He witnessed the Argentinian assault on the SS Atlantic Conveyor.[24]

On the finish of the struggle, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, the place the Queen and Prince Philip joined different households of the crew in welcoming the vessel dwelling. The Argentine army authorities reportedly deliberate, however didn’t try, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982.[25] Although he had transient assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, and the Joint Providers College of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible till 1983. Commander Nigel Ward’s memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as “a superb pilot and a really promising officer.”[26]

Profession naval officer

The Duke of York with the US Secretary of Protection Leon Panetta commemorating the one centesimal anniversary of Naval Aviation on the Nationwide Constructing Museum in 2011

In late 1983, Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, and was educated to fly the Lynx helicopter.[16] On 1 February 1984 he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant,[27] whereupon the Queen appointed him as her private aide-de-camp.[28] Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot till 1986,[16] together with deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as a part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2. He undertook the Lieutenants’ Greenwich Workers course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the Common Listing, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare teacher’s course at RNAS Yeovilton, and, upon commencement, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland. He additionally served on HMS Edinburgh as an officer of the watch and Assistant Navigating Officer till 1989, together with a six-month deployment to the Far East as a part of train Outback 88.[16]

The Duke of York served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 on HMS Campbeltown from 1989 to 1991. He additionally acted as Power Aviation Officer to Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 whereas Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO power within the North Atlantic from 1990 to 1991.[16] He handed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991, attended the Workers Faculty, Camberley the next 12 months, and accomplished the Military Workers course. He was promoted to Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February and handed the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. From 1993 to 1994, Prince Andrew commanded the Hunt-class minehunter HMS Cottesmore.[16]

From 1995 to 1996, the Duke was posted as Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron, then the most important flying unit within the Fleet Air Arm. His fundamental accountability was to oversee flying requirements and to ensure an efficient operational functionality.[16] He was promoted to Commander on 27 April 1999,[16] ending his lively naval profession on the Ministry of Defence in 2001, as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Workers.[16] In July of that 12 months, the Duke of York was retired from the Lively Listing of the Navy.[29] Three years later, he was made an Honorary Captain.[30] On 19 February 2010, his fiftieth birthday, he was promoted to Rear Admiral.[31] 5 years later, he was promoted to Vice Admiral.[32][33]

He ceased utilizing his honorary army titles in January 2022.[34] The motion got here after greater than 150 Royal Navy, RAF and Military veterans signed a letter, requesting that the Queen take away his honorary army appointments in gentle of his involvement in a sexual assault civil case.[34] It was reported that he would nonetheless retain his service rank of Vice Admiral.[34]

Private life

Private pursuits

Andrew is a eager golfer and has had a low single-figure handicap.[35] He was captain of the Royal and Historical Golf Membership of St Andrews between 2003 and 2004—in the course of the membership’s 250th anniversary season—was patron of quite a lot of royal golf golf equipment, and had been elected as an honorary member of many others. In 2004, he was criticised by Labour Co-op MP Ian Davidson, who in a letter to the NAO questioned the Duke’s choice to fly to St Andrews on RAF planes for 2 {golfing} journeys.[36] Andrew resigned his honorary membership of the Royal and Historical Golf Membership of St Andrews when the Queen eliminated royal patronages at a number of golf golf equipment.[37][38] His honorary membership of the Royal Dornoch Golf Membership was revoked within the following month.[39]

The Duke can also be a eager skier and in 2015 purchased a snowboarding chalet in Verbier, Switzerland, for between £8 million and £13 million collectively together with his ex-wife, Sarah Ferguson.[40]

Andrew is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Firm of Shipwrights, the senior maritime Metropolis livery firm.[41] In Might 2008, he attended a goose-hunt in Kazakhstan with President Nursultan Nazarbayev.[42]

Relationship with Koo Stark

Andrew met Koo Stark in February 1981, earlier than his lively service within the Falklands Struggle.[43][44] In October 1982, they took a vacation collectively on the island of Mustique.[45][46] Tina Brown has claimed that Stark was Andrew’s solely severe love curiosity.[47] In 1983, they break up up beneath strain from press, paparazzi, and palace.[43][47] In 1997, Andrew grew to become godfather to Stark’s daughter.[48] When Andrew was going through accusations in 2015 over his connection to Jeffrey Epstein, Stark got here to his defence.[43]

Marriage to Sarah Ferguson

Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey on 23 July 1986. On the identical day, the Queen created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh.[49] The primary two of those titles have been beforehand held by each his maternal grandfather and great-grandfather. Prince Andrew had identified Ferguson since childhood; they’d met often at polo matches, and have become re-acquainted with one another at Royal Ascot in 1985.[50]

The couple appeared to have a contented marriage and had two daughters collectively, Beatrice and Eugenie, presenting a united outward look in the course of the late Nineteen Eighties. His spouse’s private qualities have been seen as refreshing within the context of the formal protocol surrounding the royal household.[50] Nevertheless, the Duke of York’s frequent journey attributable to his army profession, in addition to relentless, usually important, media consideration targeted on the Duchess of York, led to fractures within the marriage.[51][52] On 19 March 1992, the couple introduced plans to separate and did so in an amicable means.[53] Some months later, footage appeared within the tabloid media of the Duchess in intimate affiliation with John Bryan, her monetary advisor on the time, which successfully ended any hopes of a reconciliation between the Duke and Duchess. The wedding was resulted in divorce on 30 Might 1996. The Duke of York spoke fondly of his former spouse: “We have now managed to work collectively to convey our youngsters up in a means that few others have been in a position to and I’m extraordinarily grateful to have the ability to try this.”[54]

The Duke of York driving within the carriage procession at Trooping the Color, 16 June 2012

The couple agreed to share custody of their two daughters, and the household continued to reside at Sunninghill Park (constructed close to Windsor Nice Park for the couple in 1990) till the Duke moved to the Royal Lodge in 2004. In 2007, Sarah moved into Dolphin Home in Englefield Inexperienced, lower than a mile from the Royal Lodge.[55] In 2008, a fireplace at Dolphin Home[55] resulted in Sarah transferring into Royal Lodge, once more sharing a home with the Duke of York.[56] Andrew’s lease of Royal Lodge is for 75 years, with the Crown Property as landlord, at a price of a single £1 million premium and a dedication to spend £7.5 million on refurbishment.[57]

In Might 2010, Sarah was filmed by a Information of the World reporter claiming that her former husband had agreed that if she have been to obtain £500,000, he would meet the donor and cross on helpful top-level enterprise contacts. She was filmed receiving, in money, $40,000 as a down cost. The paper claimed that the Duke didn’t know of the scenario.[58] In July 2011, Sarah said that her multi-million pound money owed had been cleared as a result of intervention of her former husband, whom she in comparison with a “knight on a white charger”.[59]

Allegations of sexual abuse

Jeffrey Epstein and associated associations

BBC Information reported in March 2011 that Andrew’s friendship with Jeffrey Epstein, an American financier and (from 2008) a convicted intercourse offender, was producing “a gentle stream of criticism”, and there have been requires him to step down from his position as commerce envoy.[60] The Duke was additionally criticised within the media after his former spouse, Sarah, disclosed that he helped organize for Epstein to repay £15,000 of her money owed.[61][62] Andrew had been photographed in December 2010 strolling with Epstein in Central Park throughout a go to to New York Metropolis.[63] In July 2011, the Duke’s position as commerce envoy was terminated and he reportedly reduce all ties with Epstein.[60][64]

On 30 December 2014, a Florida courtroom submitting by attorneys Bradley J. Edwards and Paul G. Cassell alleged that Andrew was one among a number of outstanding figures, together with lawyer Alan Dershowitz and “a former prime minister”,[65] to have participated in sexual actions with a minor later recognized as Virginia Giuffre (then identified by her maiden identify Virginia Roberts),[66] who was allegedly trafficked for intercourse by Epstein.[67] An affidavit from Giuffre was included in an earlier lawsuit from 2008 accusing the US Justice Division of violating the Crime Victims’ Rights Act throughout Epstein’s first prison case by not permitting a number of of his victims to problem his plea deal; the Duke was in any other case not a celebration to the lawsuit.[68] Whereas there is no such thing as a doubt Giuffre was concerned with Epstein there are some inconsistencies in her accounts.[69]

In January 2015, there was renewed media and public strain for Buckingham Palace to elucidate Andrew’s reference to Epstein.[70] Buckingham Palace said that “any suggestion of impropriety with underage minors is categorically unfaithful”, and later repeated the denial.[71][72] Requests from Giuffre’s attorneys for a press release from the Duke concerning the allegations, beneath oath, have been returned unanswered.[73][74]

Dershowitz denied the allegations in Giuffre’s assertion and sought disbarment of the attorneys submitting the swimsuit.[75][76][77] Edwards and Cassell sued Dershowitz for defamation in January 2015; he countersued.[78] The 2 events settled in 2016 for an undisclosed monetary sum.[79] Epstein sued Edwards for civil racketeering however later dropped his swimsuit; Edwards countersued for malicious prosecution with the consequence that Epstein issued a public apology to the lawyer in December 2018.[80][81]

Giuffre asserted that she had intercourse with Andrew on three events, together with a visit to London in 2001 when she was 17,[82] and later in New York and on Little Saint James within the U.S. Virgin Islands.[63] She alleged Epstein paid her $15,000 to have intercourse with the Duke in London.[82] Flight logs present the Duke and Giuffre have been within the locations she alleged their conferences befell.[83][84] Andrew and Giuffre have been additionally photographed collectively together with his arm around her waist, with an Epstein affiliate, Ghislaine Maxwell, within the background,[85] although Andrew’s supporters have repeatedly claimed the picture is faux and edited.[86] Giuffre said that she was pressured to have intercourse with the Duke and “would not have dared object” as Epstein, via contacts, may have her “killed or kidnapped”. The allegations have, as of early 2015, not been examined in any courtroom.[87]

On 7 April 2015, Decide Kenneth Marra dominated that the “intercourse allegations made in opposition to Andrew in courtroom papers filed in Florida should be struck from the general public report”.[88][89] Marra made no ruling as as to whether claims by Giuffre are true or false, particularly stating that she might later give proof when the case involves courtroom.[90] Giuffre said she wouldn’t “be bullied again into silence”.[91]

Tuan “John” Alessi, who was Epstein’s butler, said in a deposition he filed for Giuffre’s 2016 defamation case in opposition to Maxwell that Andrew’s hitherto unremarked visits to the Epstein home in Palm Seaside have been extra frequent than beforehand thought. He maintained that Andrew “spent weeks with us” and obtained “each day massages”.[92]

In August 2019, courtroom paperwork related to a defamation case between Giuffre and Maxwell revealed {that a} second lady, Johanna Sjoberg, gave proof alleging that Andrew had positioned his hand on her breast whereas in Epstein’s mansion posing for a photograph together with his Spitting Picture puppet.[93] Later that month, Andrew launched a press release that mentioned, “At no stage in the course of the restricted time I spent with [Epstein] did I see, witness or suspect any behaviour of the type that subsequently led to his arrest and conviction,” although he expressed remorse for assembly him in 2010 after Epstein had already pleaded responsible to intercourse crimes for the primary time.[94] On the finish of August 2019, The New Republic printed a September 2013 e-mail alternate between John Brockman and Evgeny Morozov, wherein Brockman talked about seeing a British man nicknamed “Andy” obtain a foot therapeutic massage from two Russian girls at Epstein’s New York residence throughout his final go to to the mansion in 2010, and had realised “that the recipient of Irina’s foot therapeutic massage was His Royal Highness, Prince Andrew, the Duke of York”.[95]

In November 2021 Lawrence Visoski, Epstein’s pilot, testified in courtroom throughout Ghislaine Maxwell’s trial that Prince Andrew flew in Epstein’s non-public aircraft together with different outstanding people, together with Invoice Clinton, Donald Trump and John Glenn. Visoski said he didn’t discover any sexual exercise or wrongdoing on the aircraft.[96] Equally, Andrew’s identify was recorded on 12 Might 2001 by Epstein’s pilot David Rodgers in his logbook, and he testified that the Duke flew 3 times with Epstein and Giuffre in 2001.[97] The next month an image of Epstein and Maxwell, sitting at a cabin on the Queen’s Balmoral property, round 1999, on the invitation of Andrew, was proven to the jury to ascertain their standing as companions.[98]

On 5 January 2022, Virginia Giuffre’s former boyfriend, Anthony Figueroa, mentioned on Good Morning Britain that Giuffre instructed him Epstein would take her to satisfy Prince Andrew. He mentioned, “She known as me when she was on the journey and she or he was speaking about she knew what they needed her to do and she or he was actually nervous and scared as a result of she did not know how one can react to it”. He alleged the assembly had taken place in London.[99] In a courtroom submitting, Andrew’s attorneys had beforehand referred to a press release by Figueroa’s sister, Crystal Figueroa, who alleged that in her bid to seek out victims for Epstein, Giuffre had requested her, “Are you aware any women who’re type of slutty?”[100] The identical month, Carolyn Andriano, who as a 14-year-old was launched by Giuffre to Ghislaine Maxwell and Jeffrey Epstein and was a prosecution witness in Maxwell’s trial, claimed in an interview with the Day by day Mail that then 17-year-old Giuffre instructed her in 2001 that she had slept with Prince Andrew. She said, “And [Giuffre] mentioned, ‘I bought to sleep with him’. She did not appear upset about it. She thought it was fairly cool.”[101]

In an ITV documentary, former royal safety officer Paul Web page recounted Maxwell’s frequent visits to Buckingham Palace, and prompt the 2 may need had an intimate relationship,[102] whereas Girl Victoria Hervey added that Andrew was current at social events held by Maxwell.[103] The Duke of York’s identify and phone numbers for Buckingham Palace, Sunninghill Park, Wooden Farm and Balmoral additionally appeared in Maxwell and Epstein’s ‘Little Black Guide’, a listing of contacts of the duo’s highly effective and well-known mates.[103] In February 2022, The Day by day Telegraph printed {a photograph} of Andrew together with Maxwell giving a tour of Buckingham Palace to Andrew’s friends Invoice Clinton and Kevin Spacey, with a member of the tour celebration describing Maxwell as “the one who led us into Buckingham Palace”.[104]

Newsnight interview

In November 2019, the BBC’s Newsnight organized an interview between Andrew and presenter Emily Maitlis wherein he recounted his friendship with Epstein for the primary time.[105] Within the interview, Prince Andrew says he met Epstein in 1999 via Maxwell; this contradicts feedback made by the Duke’s non-public secretary in 2011, who claims the 2 met in “the early Nineteen Nineties”.[106] The Duke additionally mentioned he didn’t remorse his friendship with Epstein, saying “the folks that I met and the alternatives that I used to be given to be taught both by him or due to him have been really very helpful”.[107]

Within the interview, Andrew denied having intercourse with Giuffre on 10 March 2001, as she had accused, as a result of he had been at dwelling together with his daughters after attending a celebration at PizzaExpress in Woking together with his elder daughter Beatrice.[108][109] Prince Andrew additionally added that Giuffre’s claims about dancing with him at a membership in London whereas he was sweaty have been false attributable to him quickly shedding the flexibility to sweat after an “adrenaline overdose” in the course of the Falklands Struggle.[110] Based on physicians consulted by The Instances, an adrenaline overdose usually causes extreme sweating in people.[111]

Andrew additionally admitted to staying in Epstein’s mansion for 3 days in 2010, after Epstein’s conviction for intercourse offences in opposition to a minor, describing the placement as “a handy place to remain”. The Duke mentioned that he met Epstein for the only real goal of breaking off any future relationship with him.[112] He additionally mentioned that he could be prepared to testify beneath oath relating to his associations with Epstein.[107]

Civil lawsuit

In August 2021, Virginia Giuffre sued Prince Andrew within the federal District Court docket for the Southern District of New York, accusing him of “sexual assault and intentional infliction of emotional misery.”[113] On 29 October 2021, Andrew’s attorneys filed a response, stating that their shopper “unequivocally denies Giuffre’s false allegations”.[114][115]

On 12 January 2022 Decide Kaplan rejected Andrew’s makes an attempt to dismiss the case, permitting the sexual abuse lawsuit to proceed.[116][117] In February, the case was settled out of courtroom, with Andrew making a donation to Giuffre’s charity for victims of abuse.[7] The Guardian wrote: “However, it’s understood, the very decisive motion taken by the 95-year-old Queen final month, when she stripped Prince Andrew of his royal patronages, honorary army titles and any official use of his HRH title, nonetheless stands agency.”[118]

Repercussions

The 2019 interview was believed by Maitlis and Newsnight to have been accredited by the Queen,[119] though “palace insiders” talking to The Sunday Telegraph disputed this.[120] One in all Prince Andrew’s official advisors resigned simply previous to the interview being aired.[121] Though the Duke was happy with the result of the interview – reportedly giving Maitlis and the Newsnight group a tour of Buckingham Palace[122] – it obtained detrimental reactions from each the media and the general public, each in and out of doors of the UK. The interview was described as a “automotive crash”, “nuclear explosion degree unhealthy”[123][124] and the worst public relations disaster for the royal household because the demise of Diana, Princess of Wales. Consultants and people with ties to Buckingham Palace mentioned that the interview, its fallout and the abrupt suspension of the Duke’s royal duties have been unprecedented.[125]

On 19 November 2019, the College students’ Union of the College of Huddersfield handed a movement to foyer Andrew to resign as its chancellor, as London Metropolitan College was contemplating the Duke’s position as its patron.[126] On 18 November, accountancy agency KPMG introduced it might not be renewing its sponsorship of Prince Andrew’s entrepreneurial scheme [email protected],[127] and on 19 November Commonplace Chartered additionally withdrew its help.[128]

On 20 November 2019, a press release from Buckingham Palace introduced that Andrew was suspending his public duties “for the foreseeable future”. The choice, made with the consent of the Queen, was accompanied by the insistence that the Duke sympathised with Epstein’s victims.[129] Different working royals took his commitments over within the brief time period.[130] On 21 November, the Duke relinquished his position as chancellor of the College of Huddersfield.[131] Three days later, the palace confirmed that Andrew was to step down from all 230 of his patronages, though he expressed a want to have some form of public position at some future time.[132]

On 16 January 2020, it was reported that the Dwelling Workplace was recommending “a significant downgrade of safety” for Andrew, which might put an finish to “his round the clock armed police safety”.[133] It was later reported that he had been allowed to maintain his £300,000-a-year safety and the advice could be reviewed once more sooner or later.[134] On 28 January 2020, US Lawyer Geoffrey Berman said that Prince Andrew had supplied “zero co-operation” with federal prosecutors and the FBI relating to the continued investigations, regardless of his preliminary promise within the Newsnight interview when he mentioned he was prepared to assist the authorities.[135] Buckingham Palace didn’t touch upon the difficulty, although sources near the Duke claimed that he “hasn’t been approached” by US authorities and investigators,[136] and his authorized group introduced that he had supplied to be a witness “on at the very least three events” however had been refused by the Division of Justice.[137] The US authorities responded to the declare and denied being approached by Andrew for an interview and labeled his claims as a means “to falsely painting himself to the general public as keen and prepared to cooperate”.[138]

In March 2020, Andrew employed crisis-management knowledgeable Mark Gallagher, who had helped high-profile shoppers falsely accused in Operation Midland.[139] In April 2020, it was reported that the Duke of York Younger Champions Trophy wouldn’t be performed anymore, in any case actions carried out by the Prince Andrew Charitable Belief have been stopped.[140] In Might 2020, it was reported that the Prince Andrew Charitable Belief was beneath investigation by the Charity Fee relating to some regulatory points about £350,000 of funds to his former non-public secretary Amanda Thirsk.[141] Based on The Instances, senior personnel within the navy and armed forces thought of Andrew to be a humiliation for the army and believed he ought to be stripped of his army roles.[142] In Might 2020 it was introduced that Andrew would completely resign from all public roles over his Epstein ties.[4]

In June 2020, it grew to become identified that Andrew is an individual of curiosity in a prison investigation in the USA, and that the USA had filed a mutual authorized help request to British authorities so as to query Andrew.[143][144] Newsweek reported {that a} majority of British residents consider Andrew ought to be stripped of his titles and extradited to the USA.[145] Following the arrest of Ghislaine Maxwell in July 2020, Andrew cancelled a deliberate journey to Spain, reportedly attributable to fears that he is likely to be arrested and extradited to the USA.[146] Within the 2019 BBC interview, Andrew instructed Newsnight his affiliation with Epstein was derived from his long-standing friendship with Ghislaine Maxwell, who was later convicted of colluding in Epstein’s sexual abuse.[147]

In August 2020, anti-child trafficking protesters chanting “Paedophile! Paedophile!” referencing Andrew gathered exterior Buckingham Palace, and movies of the protest went viral.[148] In August 2021, royal biographer Penny Junor maintained Prince Andrew’s status with the general public was broken past restore.[149]

In 2020, prosecutors looking for entry to Andrew made a proper mutual authorized help request to the British authorities.[150] It was reported in August 2021 that American authorities have been pessimistic about with the ability to interview Andrew.[150]

In January 2022, Andrew’s social media accounts have been deleted, his web page on the royal household’s web site was rewritten up to now tense and his army affiliations and patronages have been eliminated to place an emphasis on his departure from public life.[151] He additionally stopped utilizing the type His Royal Highness (HRH) although it was not formally eliminated.[34] In the identical month, York Racecourse introduced that it might rename the Duke of York Stakes,[152] and Prince Andrew Excessive College in Nova Scotia, which had introduced two years earlier that it was contemplating a reputation change as a result of the identify “not displays the values of the neighborhood”,[153] said that it might have a brand new identify on the subsequent tutorial 12 months.[154] In February 2022, Belfast Metropolis Council and the Northern Eire Meeting determined to not fly a union flag for Andrew’s birthday.[155] In the identical month, the Mid and East Antrim Borough Council introduced that they might maintain a debate in June 2022 relating to a movement to rename Prince Andrew Means in Carrickfergus.[156] York Metropolis Council will introduce a movement to take away Andrew’s honorary freedom of town on 24 March 2022.[157]

Actions and charitable work

Prince Andrew, Russian President Medvedev and Japanese PM Tarō Asō go to the Sakhalin-II oil and gasoline undertaking within the Russian Far East, 2009

The Duke was patron of the Center East Affiliation (MEA), the UK’s premier organisation for selling commerce and good relations with the Center East, North Africa, Turkey and Iran.[158] Since his position as Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding ended the Duke continued to help UK enterprise and not using a particular position. Robert Jobson claimed he did this work properly and wrote, “He’s significantly passionate when coping with younger start-up entrepreneurs and bringing them along with profitable companies at networking and showcasing occasions. Andrew is direct and to the purpose, and his strategies appear to work”.[159]

The Duke was additionally patron of Battle for Sight, a charity devoted to analysis into the prevention and therapy of blindness and eye illness,[160] and was a member of the Scout Affiliation.[161] He toured Canada steadily to undertake duties associated to his Canadian army position. Rick Peters, the previous Commanding Officer of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada said that Prince Andrew was “very properly knowledgeable on Canadian army strategies”.[162]

Whereas touring India as part of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee in 2012,[163] Andrew took an interest within the work of Girls’s Interlink Basis (WIF), a charity which helps girls purchase expertise to earn revenue. He and his household later initiated Key to Freedom, a undertaking which tries to “discover a path to marketplace for merchandise made by WIF”.[164][165] On 3 September 2012, the Duke of York was amongst a group of 40 individuals who abseiled down The Shard (tallest constructing in Europe) to lift cash for instructional charities the Outward Sure Belief and the Royal Marines Charitable Belief Fund.[166][167]

The Duke of York in his position because the UK’s Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding on the World Financial Discussion board on the Center East, 2008.

In 2013, it was introduced that the Duke was changing into the patron of London Metropolitan College[168] and the College of Huddersfield.[169][170] In July 2015, he was put in as Chancellor of the College of Huddersfield.[171] In recognition of the Duke’s promotion of entrepreneurship he was elected to an Honorary Fellowship at Hughes Corridor within the College of Cambridge on 1 Might 2018.[172] He grew to become the patron of the charity Attend[173] in 2003, and was a member of the Worldwide Advisory Board of the Royal United Providers Institute.

In 2014, the Duke of York based the [email protected] initiative[174] to help entrepreneurs with the amplification and acceleration of their enterprise concepts. Entrepreneurs chosen for [email protected] Bootcamp are formally invited by the Duke[175] to attend St. James Palace so as to pitch their concepts and to be related with potential buyers, mentors and enterprise contacts.[176] The Duke additionally based The Prince Andrew Charitable Belief which aimed to help younger folks in several areas corresponding to training and coaching.[177] He additionally based quite a lot of awards together with Inspiring Digital Enterprise Award (iDEA), a programme to develop the digital and enterprise expertise,[178][179] the Duke of York Award for Technical Schooling, given to proficient younger folks in technical training,[180][181] and the Duke of York Younger Entrepreneur Award, which recognised abilities of younger folks in entrepreneurship.[182] The Duke of York lent his help to organisations that target science and know-how by changing into the patron of Catalyst Inc and TeenTech.[183][184][185] In 2014, Andrew visited Geneva, Switzerland, to advertise British science at CERN’s sixtieth anniversary celebrations.[186] In Might 2018, he visited China and opened the [email protected] China Bootcamp 2.0 at Peking College.[187]

In March 2019, the Duke of York took over the patronage of the Outward Sure Belief from his father, the Duke of Edinburgh, serving up till his personal resignation in November 2019.[188] Prince Andrew had held the place of chairman of the board of trustees of the organisation since 1999.[189] The charity tries to instil management qualities amongst younger folks.[190] In Might 2019, it was introduced that the Duke had succeeded Lord Carrington as patron of the Royal Wonderful Artwork Fee Belief.[191]

On 13 January 2022, it was introduced that his royal patronages had been handed again to the Queen to be distributed amongst different members of the royal household.[34]

Controversies and different incidents

Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding

The Duke of York with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev, 2011

From 2001 till July 2011, the Duke of York labored with UK Commerce & Funding, a part of the Division for Enterprise, Innovation and Abilities, as the UK’s Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding.[192] The put up, beforehand held by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, concerned representing and selling the UK at varied commerce gala’s and conferences all over the world.[11] His suitability for the position was challenged within the Home of Commons by Shadow Justice Minister Chris Bryant in February 2011, on the time of the 2011 Libyan civil struggle, on the grounds that he was “not solely a really shut buddy of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, but in addition … an in depth buddy of the convicted Libyan gun smuggler Tarek Kaituni”.[193][194] Additional issues arose as he hosted a lunch for Sakher El Materi, a member of the corrupt Tunisian regime, on the Palace across the time of the Tunisian Revolution.[195] Andrew additionally shaped a friendship with Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan who has been criticised for corruption and for abuses of human rights by Amnesty Worldwide, and visited him each throughout and after his tenure because the UK commerce envoy. As of November 2014, the Duke had met Aliyev, on 12 events.[196] The controversies, collectively together with his ties to Jeffrey Epstein, made him step down from the position in 2011.[195]

Andrew didn’t obtain a wage from the UK Commerce & Funding for his position as Particular Consultant, however he went on expenses-paid delegations and was alleged to have often used journeys paid for by the federal government for his private leisure, which earned him the nickname “Airmiles Andy” by the press.[195] On 8 March 2011, The Day by day Telegraph reported: “In 2010, the Prince spent £620,000 as a commerce envoy, together with £154,000 on lodges, meals and hospitality and £465,000 on journey.”[197]

In November 2020, and following critiques of emails, inside paperwork, and unreported regulatory filings in addition to interviews with 10 former financial institution insiders, Bloomberg Businessweek reported on Andrew utilizing his royal cachet and position as Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding for serving to David Rowland and his non-public financial institution, Banque Havilland, with securing offers with shoppers all over the world.[198] The Rowland household are among the many funding advisers to the Duke of York,[199] and he was current for the official opening ceremony of their financial institution in July 2009.[200]

Alleged feedback on corruption and Kazakhstan

As the UK’s Particular Commerce Consultant, the Duke of York travelled the world to advertise British companies. It was revealed in the USA diplomatic cables leak that the Duke had been reported on by Tatiana Gfoeller, the USA Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan, discussing bribery in Kyrgyzstan and the investigation into the Al-Yamamah arms deal. The Duke, she defined, “was referencing an investigation, subsequently closed, into alleged kickbacks a senior Saudi royal had obtained in alternate for the multi-year, profitable BAE Techniques contract to supply tools and coaching to Saudi safety forces.”[201] The dispatch continued: “His mom’s topics seated across the desk roared their approval. He then went on to ‘these (expletive) journalists, particularly from the Nationwide Guardian [sic], who poke their noses all over the place’ and (presumably) make it more durable for British businessmen to do enterprise. The gang virtually clapped!”[202]

Earlier in 2010, it was revealed that the Kazakhstan President’s billionaire son-in-law Timur Kulibayev paid the Duke of York’s representatives £15 million – £3 million over the asking worth – through offshore corporations, for the Duke’s Surrey mansion, Sunninghill Park. Kulibayev steadily seems in US dispatches as one of many males who’ve accrued tens of millions in gas-rich Kazakhstan.[202]

In Might 2012, it was reported that Swiss and Italian police investigating “a community of non-public and enterprise relationships” allegedly used for “worldwide corruption” have been wanting on the actions of Enviro Pacific Investments which costs “multi-million pound charges” to power corporations wishing to cope with Kazakhstan.[203] The belief is believed to have paid £6 million in the direction of the acquisition of Sunninghill which now seems derelict.[203] In response, a Palace spokesman mentioned “This was a non-public sale between two trusts. There was by no means any impropriety on the a part of The Duke of York”.[203]

Libby Purves wrote in The Instances in January 2015: “Prince Andrew dazzles simply when confronted with immense wealth and obvious energy. He has fallen for ‘friendships’ with unhealthy, corrupt and intelligent males, not solely within the US however in Libya, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, wherever.”[87]

In Might 2016, a contemporary controversy broke out when the Day by day Mail alleged that the Duke had brokered a deal to help a Greek and Swiss consortium in securing a £385 million contract to construct water and sewerage networks in two of Kazakhstan’s largest cities, whereas working as British commerce envoy, and had stood to realize a £4 million cost in fee. The newspaper printed an e-mail from the Duke to Kazakh oligarch Kenges Rakishev, (who had allegedly brokered sale of the Prince’s Berkshire mansion Sunninghill Park), and claimed that Rakishev had organized conferences for the consortium. After initially claiming the e-mail was a forgery, Buckingham Palace sought to dam its publication as a privateness breach.[204] The Palace denied the allegation that the Duke had acted as a “fixer” calling the article “unfaithful, defamatory and a breach of the editor’s code of conduct”.[204]

A former Overseas Workplace minister, MP Chris Bryant said: “Once I was on the Overseas Workplace it was very troublesome to see in whose pursuits he [the Duke] was performing. He would not precisely add lustre to the Royal diadem”.[204]

Arms gross sales

In March 2011, Kaye Stearman of the Marketing campaign Towards the Arms Commerce instructed Channel 4 Information CAAT sees Prince Andrew as a part of an even bigger drawback, “He’s the entrance man for UKTI. Our considerations should not simply Prince Andrew, it is the entire UKTI arrange. They see arms as simply one other commodity nevertheless it has fully disproportionate sources. On the London workplace of UKTI the arms sector has extra workers than all of the others put collectively. We’re involved that Prince Andrew is used to promote arms, and the place you promote arms it’s more likely to be to despotic regimes. He’s the cheerleader in chief for the arms trade, shaking palms and paving the best way for the salesmen.”[205]

In January 2014, Prince Andrew took half in a delegation to Bahrain, an in depth ally of the UK. Spokesman for CAAT, Andrew Smith mentioned, “We’re calling on Prince Andrew and the UK authorities to cease promoting arms to Bahrain. By endorsing the Bahraini dictatorship Prince Andrew is giving his implicit help to their oppressive practices. When our authorities sells arms it’s giving ethical and sensible help to an illegitimate and authoritarian regime and straight supporting their systematic crackdown on opposition teams. (…) We should not permit our worldwide picture for use as a PR instrument for the violent and oppressive dictatorship in Bahrain.”[206]

Andrew Smith has additionally mentioned, “The prince has persistently used his place to advertise arms gross sales and increase a number of the most disagreeable governments on the planet, his arms gross sales have not simply given army help to deprave and repressive regimes. They’ve lent these regimes political and worldwide legitimacy.”[207]

Response to election to the Royal Society

Andrew’s election to the Royal Society prompted “Britain’s main scientists” to “revolt” attributable to Andrew’s lack of scientific background, with some noting he had solely a secondary college degree of training.[208] In an op-ed in The Sunday Instances, pharmacologist, Humboldt Prize recipient, and Fellow of the Royal Society, David Colquhoun opined, in references to Andrew’s {qualifications}, that “if I needed a tip for the winner of the 14.30 at Newmarket, I would ask a royal. For many different questions, I would not.”[208][209]

Allegations of racist language

Rohan Silva, a former Downing Road aide, claimed that, after they met in 2012, the Duke had commented, “Nicely, in the event you’ll pardon the expression, that actually is the nigger within the woodpile.”[210] Former dwelling secretary Jacqui Smith additionally claims that the Duke made a racist remark about Arabs throughout a state dinner for the Saudi royal household in 2007.[211][212] Buckingham Palace denied that the Duke had used racist language on both event.[213]

Allegations of ramming gates in Windsor Nice Park

In March 2016, Republic CEO Graham Smith filed a proper report back to the police, requesting an investigation into allegations that Andrew had broken sensor-operated gates in Windsor Nice Park by forcing them open in his Vary Rover to keep away from going an additional mile on his means dwelling.[214] The Thames Valley Police dismissed the stories attributable to lack of particulars.[215]

Remedy of reporters, servants and others

Throughout his four-day Southern California tour in 1984, Andrew squirted paint onto American and British journalists and photographers who have been reporting on the tour, after which he instructed Los Angeles county supervisor Kenneth Hahn, “I loved that”.[216] The incident broken the garments and tools of reporters and the Los Angeles Herald Examiner submitted a $1,200 invoice to the British consulate asking for monetary compensation.[216]

The Guardian wrote in 2022, “his brusque method with servants is well-documented. A senior footman as soon as instructed a reporter who labored undercover at Buckingham Palace that on waking the prince ‘the response can simply be “fuck off” nearly as good morning’.”[217] Former royal safety officer Paul Web page[b] claimed, in an ITV documentary, that Andrew maintained a group of “50 or 60 stuffed toys” and in the event that they “weren’t put again in the precise order by the maids, he would shout and scream and turn into verbally abusive.”[220] The Duke’s former maid, Charlotte Briggs, additionally recalled establishing the teddy bears on his mattress and instructed The Solar that when she was bitten by his Norfolk Terrier in 1996 he solely laughed and “wasn’t bothered”.[221][222] She claimed that she was diminished to tears by Andrew for not correctly closing the heavy curtains in his workplace and added that his behaviour was in distinction to that of his brothers Charles and Edward who “weren’t something like him” and his father Philip whom she described as “so good and gentlemanly”.[221]

Therapeutic massage therapist Emma Gruenbaum claimed Andrew recurrently overstepped the mark, making creepy sexual feedback when she got here to present him a therapeutic massage. Gruenbaum maintained Andrew talked regularly about intercourse in the course of the first therapeutic massage and needed to know when she final had intercourse. Gruenbaum claimed Andrew organized common massages for roughly two months, and she or he believed requests for massages stopped when he realised he wouldn’t get extra.[223]

Finance and debt issues

It’s unclear how Andrew funds his luxurious way of life; in 2021 The Guardian wrote, “With little in the best way of seen help, questions over how the Duke of York has been in a position to fund his way of life have hardly ever been answered. Up to now he has appeared to reside the jetset lifetime of a multimillionaire, with holidays aboard luxurious yachts, common {golfing} sojourns and ski journeys to unique resorts.”[224]

The Duke of York obtained a £249,000 annuity from the Queen.[225] Within the twelve-month interval as much as April 2004, he spent £325,000 on flights, and his commerce missions as particular consultant for UKTI price £75,000 in 2003.[36] The Sunday Instances reported in July 2008 that for “the Duke of York’s public position,… he final 12 months obtained £436,000 to cowl his bills”.[226] He has a Royal Navy pension of £20,000.[227]

In Might 2020, it was reported that Andrew and his former spouse have been in a authorized dispute over a Swiss ski chalet as they have been unable to pay their £5m debt.[228] Regardless of claims that the Queen would assist with paying the debt, a spokesperson for the Duke confirmed that she “is not going to be stepping in to settle the debt”.[229] The Instances reported in September 2021 that Andrew and Sarah had reached a authorized settlement with the property’s earlier proprietor and would promote the home to pay again their debt.[230] The cash is reportedly for use to pay Andrew’s authorized bills over the civil lawsuit as properly.[231]

In 2021 Bloomberg Information reported {that a} agency related to David Rowland had been paying off Andrew’s money owed.[232] In November 2017, Andrew borrowed £250,000 from Banque Havilland, including to an present £1.25 million mortgage that had been “prolonged or elevated 10 instances” since 2015.[227] Paperwork confirmed that whereas “credibility of the applicant” had been questioned, he was given the mortgage in an try to “additional enterprise potential with the Royal Household”.[227] 11 days later and in December 2017, £1.5 million was transferred from an account at Albany Reserves, which was managed by the Rowland household, to the Duke’s account at Banque Havilland, paying off the mortgage that was due in March 2018.[227] Liberal Democrat politician and staunch republican Norman Baker said, “This demonstrates but once more that important questions must be requested about Prince Andrew’s enterprise dealings and his affiliation with some doubtful characters.”[233]

A number of months after Andrew’s controversial 2019 Newsnight interview, his non-public workplace established the Urramoor Belief, which owned each Lincelles Limitless (established 2020)[234] and Urramoor Ltd (established 2013),[235] and in accordance with The Instances was set as much as help his household. Lincelles was voluntarily wound up in 2022.[236] Andrew was described as a “settlor however not a beneficiary”, and didn’t personal both of the businesses, although Firms Home listed him and his non-public banker of 20 years Harry Keogh[c] as folks with “important management”.[237]

Titles, types, honours and arms

Titles and types

Royal monogram

  • 19 February 1960 – 23 July 1986: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew[238]
  • 23 July 1986 – current: His Royal Highness The Duke of York[d]

As of January 2022, Andrew is ninth within the line of succession to the throne.[239] On uncommon events, he’s identified by his secondary titles of Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh, in Scotland and Northern Eire respectively.[238][240][241]

In 2019, Inverness residents began a marketing campaign to strip him of that title, stating that “it’s inappropriate that Prince Andrew is related to our stunning metropolis”, in gentle of his friendship with the convicted intercourse offender Jeffrey Epstein.[242] Related pleas have been made by folks affiliated with the village of Killyleagh and town of York relating to his titles of Baron Killyleagh and Duke of York, with Labour Co-op MP for York Central, Rachael Maskell, stating that she would search for methods to make Andrew hand over his ducal title if he didn’t voluntarily relinquish it.[156][243][244] In January 2022, it was reported that, whereas Andrew retains the type of His Royal Highness, he would not use it in a public capability.[34]

Naval ranks

  • United Kingdom 1979–1981: Midshipman, Britannia Royal Naval Faculty, HMS Seahawk
  • United Kingdom 1981–1984: Sub Lieutenant, Pilot, 820 NAS on HMS Invincible;
  • United Kingdom 1984–1992: Lieutenant, Pilot, 815 NAS on HMS Brazen; Helicopter Warfare Teacher, 702 NAS at RNAS Culdrose; Flight Commander, 829 NAS on HMS Campbeltown
  • United Kingdom 1992–1999: Lieutenant Commander, Captain, HMS Cottesmore; Senior Pilot, 815 NAS at RNAS Portland; Directorate of Naval Operations, Ministry of Defence
  • United Kingdom 1999–2005: Commander, Diplomacy Part of the Naval Workers.[16] Launched from the lively listing in 2001.[29]
  • United Kingdom 2005–2010: Honorary Captain[30]
  • United Kingdom 2010–2015: Rear Admiral[31]
  • United Kingdom 2015–current: Vice Admiral[32][34]

Honours

Commonwealth

  • UK Royal Victorian Order ribbon.svg 21 February 2011: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO)[245]
    • 2 June 2003 – 21 February 2011: Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO)[246][247]
    • 19 December 1979 – 2 June 2003: Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO)[248][249]
  • Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png 23 April 2006: Royal Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG)[249]
  • QEII Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon.png 1977: Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal[249]
  • South Atlantic Medal w rosette BAR.svg 1982: South Atlantic Medal, with Rosette
  • Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.png 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal[249]
  • QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.png 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal[249]
  • Ribbon - Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal v3.png 2016: Naval Lengthy Service and Good Conduct Medal (1848)[250]
  • New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal ribbon.png 1990: New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal[249]
  • CD-ribbon and bar.png 2001: Canadian Forces’ Ornament (CD)[249] (with the primary clasp)[250]
  • SCM ribbon.png 2005: Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan[251]

Overseas

  • Norway 1988: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav[249]
  • United Arab Emirates 2010: Collar of the Order of the Federation[252]
  • Mexico 2015: Sash of the Order of the Aztec Eagle[253]
  • Spain 2017: Order of Isabella the Catholic[254]

Appointments

  • 1 February 1984 – 13 January 2022: Private aide-de-camp to the Queen[249]
  • 1987: Freeman of the Metropolis of York[157]
  • 2007: Lord Excessive Commissioner to the Common Meeting of the Church of Scotland
  • 5 Might 2013: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)[249][255]
  • 20 February 2015: Grand President of the Royal Commonwealth Ex-Providers League[256]
  • 13 July 2015 – 21 November 2019: Chancellor of the College of Huddersfield[171][257]
  • 20 April 2016: Honorary Fellow of the Society of Gentle and Lighting (Hon. FSLL)[258]
  • 1 Might 2018 – November 2019: Honorary Fellow of Hughes Corridor, Cambridge[172][259]

Former honorary army appointments

In 2019, Andrew’s army affiliations have been suspended and on 13 January 2022 they have been formally returned to the Queen.[34]

 Canada
  • Canada Colonel-in-Chief of The Queen’s York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)[260]
  • Canada Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada[260]
  • Canada Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess Louise Fusiliers[260]
  • Canada Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (disbanded)
 New Zealand
  • New Zealand Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal New Zealand Military Logistic Regiment[260]
 United Kingdom
  • United Kingdom Colonel of the Grenadier Guards[261]
  • United Kingdom Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Irish Regiment (twenty seventh (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment)[260]
  • United Kingdom Colonel-in-Chief of the Small Arms College Corps[260]
  • United Kingdom Colonel-in-Chief of the Yorkshire Regiment (14th/fifteenth, nineteenth and thirty third/76th Foot)[260]
  • United Kingdom Colonel-in-Chief of the ninth/twelfth Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales’s)[260] (disbanded)
  • United Kingdom Deputy Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Lancers (Queen Elizabeths’ Personal)[34]
  • United Kingdom Royal Colonel of the Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion Royal Regiment of Scotland[260]
  • United Kingdom Honorary Air Commodore, Royal Air Power Lossiemouth[260]
  • United Kingdom Commodore-in-Chief of the Fleet Air Arm[260]
  • United Kingdom Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps[260]

Arms

Coat of arms of the Duke of York
Coat of Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Notes
The Duke’s private coat of arms are the Royal coat of arms of the UK differenced by a label of three factors Argent, the central level charged with an anchor Azure.
Adopted
1963
Coronet
The coronet of a son of the sovereign Correct, thereon a lion statant guardant Or topped of the identical coronet charged with a label as within the arms.
Escutcheon
Quarterly 1st and 4th Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or 2nd Or a lion rampant Gules inside a double tressure flory counterflory Gules third Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Supporters
Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially topped correct, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a series affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the again additionally Or.
Motto
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Disgrace be to him who thinks evil of it)
Different parts
The entire differenced by a label of three factors Argent, the central level charged with an anchor Azure.
Banner
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.svg The Royal Commonplace of the UK, labelled for distinction as in his arms.
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness.svg (in Scotland)
Personal Flag of the Duke of York for use in Canada.svg (in Canada: Since 2014, the Duke of York has a private heraldic flag to be used in Canada. It’s the Royal Arms of Canada in banner type defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, inside which is an outline of an “A” surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three factors, the centre one charged with an anchor.[262][263])
Symbolism
As with the Royal Arms of the UK. The primary and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Eire. The anchor has been a brisure for Dukes of York since 1892.

Subject

Title Delivery Marriage Subject
Date Partner
Princess Beatrice of York 8 August 1988 17 July 2020 Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Sienna Mapelli Mozzi
Princess Eugenie of York 23 March 1990 12 October 2018 Jack Brooksbank August Brooksbank

Ancestry

Footnotes

Citations

Bibliography

  • Images (1985) by HRH Prince Andrew. London: Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-11644-9. OCLC 13947617. A ebook of pictures taken by Andrew.

  • Media associated to Prince Andrew, Duke of York at Wikimedia Commons
  • The Duke of York on the Royal Household web site
  • Prince Andrew, Duke of York at IMDb
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Home of Windsor

Born: 19 February 1960

Strains of succession
Preceded by

Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor
Succession to the British throne
ninth in line
Adopted by
Princess Beatrice
Peerage of the UK
Vacant

seventh creation merged with the crown in 1936
Title final held by

The Prince Albert

Duke of York
eighth creation
1986–current
Incumbent
Orders of priority in the UK
Preceded by

The Prince of Wales
& Duke of Rothesay
Gents
The Duke of York
Succeeded by

The Earl of Wessex
Preceded by

The Duke of Sussex
Gents
in present follow
Tutorial workplaces
Preceded by

Sir Patrick Stewart
Chancellor of the College of Huddersfield
2015–2019
Succeeded by

George W. Buckley
Sporting positions
Preceded by

The Duke of Kent
President of The Soccer Affiliation
2000–2006
Succeeded by

The Duke of Cambridge
Different workplaces
Preceded by

The Duke of Kent
Particular Consultant for Worldwide Commerce and Funding
2001–2011
Vacant


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